Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification.

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Ostroumov S.A. Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002. 469: 117-129.
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DOI 10.1023/A:1015559123646;
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KEYWORDS: self-purification, filter-feeders, surfactants, detergents, benthic, bivalves, aquatic, ecosystems, eutrophication, algal, blooms, hazards, chemical pollution, water quality, phytoplankton, marine, freshwater, invertebrates, clearance rate, biological effects, xenobiotics, ecotoxicants, pollutants, sustainable use, aquatic resources, aquaculture, mariculture, ecosystem services, environmental science, ecotoxicology, pollution control, bioassay, mussels, oysters, man-made effects, anthropogenic, biodiversity, clearance rate, LAS, linear alkylbenzene sulphonate, NOEC, No observable effect consentration, QSAR, quantitative structure – activity relationship, SFG, Scope for Growth, SDS, sodium dodecyl sulphate, TDTMA, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, TX100, Triton X-100, sublethal effects, pellets, faeces, pseudofaeces, suspended matter, preventing, algal blooms, sponges, polychaetes, molluscs, echinoderms, larvae of insects, ascidians, alkylsulfates, nonionic surfactants, nonylphenols, bioassay, Cladocera, Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia dubia, anilazin, benomyl, bentazon, cyfluthrin, dimethoat, lindan, maneb, zineb, ziram, pesticides, inhibitory effects on feeding, mortality, EC50, LC50, endosulfan, diazinon, methyl parathion, lindan, dichlobenil, Unio tumidus, U. pictorum, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas
ABSTRACT (A SHORT VERSION):
Top-down control is an important type of interspecies interactions in food webs. It is especially important for aquatic ecosystems. Phytoplankton grazers contribute to the top-down control of phytoplankton populations. The paper is focused on the role of benthic filter feeders in the control of plankton populations as a result of water filtering and the removal of cells of plankton from the water column. New data on the inhibitory effects of surfactants and detergents on benthic filter-feeders (Unio tumidus, U. pictorum, Mytilus galloprovincialis, M. edulis, and Crassostrea gigas) are presented and discussed. Importance and efficiency of that approach to the problems of eutrophication and water self-purification is pointed out. Chemical pollution may pose a threat to the natural top-down control of phytoplankton and water self-purification process. The protection of that natural top-down control is considered an important prerequisite for sustainable use of aquatic resources.
The paper was cited by international scientists, including:
Bryan W. Brooks, Timothy Riley, Ritchie Taylor. Water quality of effluent-dominated stream ecosystems: ecotoxicological, hydrological, and management considerations
Hydrobiologia 2006; 556(1):365-379;
Chatzinikolaou Y. and Lazaridou M. Identification of the self-purification stretches of the Pinios River, Central Greece. – Mediterranean Marine Science, 2007, Vol. 8 (2), p. 19-32.
GL Wei, ZF Yang, BS Cui, B. Li, H. Chen, JH Bai, S.K. Dong [GuoLiang Wei, ZhiFeng Yang, BaoShan Cui, Bing Li, He Chen, JunHong Bai and ShiKui Dong] Impact of Dam Construction on Water Quality and Water Self-Purification Capacity of the Lancang River, China. – Water Resour Manage (2009) 23:1763–1780.
Samal, N. R.; Mazumdar, A.; Johnk, K. D.; Peeters, F. Assessment of ecosystem health of tropical shallow waterbodies in eastern India using turbulence model.-Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, Volume 12, Number 2, April 2009, pp. 215-225.
Bhatti, Zafar. Lake and Reservoir Management. – Water Environment Research [Water Environ. Res.]. Oct 2004.Vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 2106-2154.
ABBREVIATIONS: CR – clearance rate; LAS – linear alkylbenzene sulphonate; NOEC – No observable effect consentration; QSAR – quantitative structure – activity relationship; SFG – Scope for Growth; SDS – sodium dodecyl sulphate; TDTMA – tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide; TX100 – Triton X-100
ADDENDUM TO THE ABSTRACT (EXTENDED VERSION of the abstract, or a condensed text of the article):
1. INTRODUCTION
By definition, the organisms of the two adjacent trophic levels interact with each other so that the organisms of the higher trophic level may produce some effect on the organisms of the lower trophic level. If the latter are not too abundant, the effects of the organisms of the higher level lead to limiting, decreasing or stabilizing the populations of the organisms of the lower trophic level. These effects might be considered a control or a partial control of the organisms of the lower trophic level. Many examples of interactions of that type were studied in various natural and experimental systems (Table 1). The significance of top-down control attributes additional importance to studies of the grazing activity of crustaceans (e.g., Sushchenya, 1975; Gutelmaher, 1986), rotifers (e.g., Monakov, 1998; Bul’on et al., 1999), protozoan plankton (e.g., Bul’on et al., 1999), and benthic invertebrates (e.g., Alimov, 1981; Donkin et al., 1989, 1991; Zaika, 1992; Ogilvie & Mitchell, 1995; Widdows et al., 1995a, Widdows et al., 1995b; Newell, 1999), and other invertebrates (Monakov, 1998).
In aquatic ecosystems, the problem of the control of the organisms of the lower trophic level (algae) is of outstanding importance because it is relevant to the problem of eutrophication. Also, control mechanisms are important in better understanding the problem of algal blooms, including the toxic algae blooms. To avoid over-simplification, we should realize that there are many factors that regulate the abundance of algal populations; top-down control is only one of them.
Many species of invertebrates of both plankton and benthos belong to the higher trophic level as compared with algae and cyanobacteria of phytoplankton. As for zooplankton species and their filter-feeding activity, an important body of information was presented and analyzed in (Sushchenya, 1975; Gutelmaher, 1986). Filtering activity of benthic species has also been studied (e.g., Alimov, 1981; Ostroumov et al., 1997, 1998).
In this paper we focus on some species of invertebrates of benthos, which are filter-feeders and in this capacity contribute to the top-down control of phytoplankton.
2. ROLE OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES IN FILTERING WATER AND RESULTING PHYTOPLANKTON GRAZING: FILTER-FEEDERS
The diversity of benthic organisms that filter water and remove algal cell and other particulate matter is broad. Filter-feeders inhabit the bottom of both freshwater and marine ecosystems. To facilitate broader general conclusions, in this paper we will consider both freshwater and marine organisms. The range of filter-feeders includes sponges, polychaetes, molluscs, echinoderms, larvae of many insects, ascidians, and some other invertebrates.
There are many examples of massive scale water filtering by benthos (e.g., Table 2; see also: Alimov, 1981; Ostroumov & Fedorov, 1999). It was shown that in some man-made reservoirs the total volume of water is filtered by benthic bivalves 2-24 times annually (e.g., Konstantinov, 1979). In a shallow lake in New Zealand the total volume is filtered during a time period of less than 2 days (Ogilvie & Mitchell, 1995). Equally massive filtering activity was discovered for the benthic sponges in the coastal waters of Lake Baikal which stores 22, 995 km3 of superb clean water (for comparison, the amount of the annual world consumption of freshwater was 3, 240 km3, and the annual freshwater withdrawal in Europe was 359 km3, in North and Central America 697 km3; the data for year 1987) (World Resources 1995-1995).
As a result of water filtering, algal cells are removed from the water column. It is important that some filter-feeders (e.g., bivalves) remove more algae than they need for feeding purposes. Excessive amounts of algae biomass and other particulate matter are excreted in the form of pellets (to distinguish them from regular faeces they are called pseudofaeces) which are larger in size than the algal cells and therefore they settle to the bottom rapidly. The amount of pseudofaeces may exceed the amount of the assimilated food manyfold. As a result, the total activity of bivalve molluscs in removing algal biomass from the water column and in making water clearer is far beyond just the trophic needs of bivalves.
The total weight of organic matter that is removed from a water column and deposited as bottom sediments is measured as high as kilograms per m2 per year. E.g., in the ecosystem of the man-made reservoir Volgogradskoe, the amount of the formerly suspended matter that was removed by molluscs from the water column and finally sedimented was 8.3 kg m-2 annually (Kondratiev, 1976; cited in Konstantinov, 1979). For the entire reservoir that is located in the center of the largest European river, the amount of sedimented matter was as high as 29 million tons.
3. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF XENOBIOTICS AND POLLUTANTS: A DECREASE IN WATER FILTRATION AND ASSOCIATED PHYTOPLANKTON GRAZING
Man-made chemicals can produce strong inhibition of water filtering by benthic molluscs or impair the normal pattern of opening bivalves which is needed to maintain the efficient filtration of water. Some examples of those effects are given in Table 3. More examples could be found in literature (e.g., Stuijfzand, 1995; Ostroumov, 1998). The experiments were usually conducted using some phytoplankton species as the organism that is being removed from the water column during the filtration experiment. Thus, in experiments with bivalve Mytilus edulis, the algae Isochrysis galbana are often used (Donkin et al., 1997; Ostroumov et al., 1997; 1998). In our experiments with M. galloprovincialis (see below) we have observed a xenobiotic-induced decrease in grazing phytoplankton cells of Monochrysis lutheri and Dunaliella viridis. In our experiments with freshwater bivalves Unio tumidus and U. pictorum, we described some pollutant-induced inhibition of the removal of green algae Scenedesmus quadricauda and cyanobacteria Synechocystis.
The major part of our experiments were done in the laboratory. Under field conditions, it was described that in polluted habitats the biomass and vitality of bivalves declined (Zaika, 1992), which means that their contribution to water filtering is negatively affected. It was possible to develop an integrative parameter, Scope for Growth (SFG) which enables the scientist to estimate the total amount of energy available for the population of mussels for its growth and reproduction (after deduction of the amount of energy is lost during respiration etc.) (Widdows et al., 1995a, 1995b). It was shown that in terms of the entire populations, in polluted habitats the reduced filtration and reduced intake of energy from digested plankton (and seston as a whole) led to the fact that SFG was reduced.
4. MORE SPECIFIC EXAMPLES AND NEW DATA: INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF SURFACTANTS
We have initiated a systematic study of the effects of another class of aquatic pollutants, namely surfactants, on the water-filtering activity of bivalves and on the resulting removal of algal cells from the water column.
Among the various organic chemicals that are entering the natural environment in large amounts (Yablokov & Ostroumov, 1983, 1985, 1991), surfactants play a significant role (Ostroumov, 1986; 1990; 1991; 1994 a; 1994b; Marcomini et al., 1988; Quiroga et al., 1989; Granmo et al, 1991; Fernandez et al., 199; Lewis, 1991; Takada & Ishiwatari, 1991; Chalaux et al., 1992; Terzic & Ahel, 1993). It was shown that surfactants produce negative and sometimes also stimulatory effects on cyanobacteria (Waterbury & Ostroumov, 1994), green algae (e.g., Goryunova & Ostroumov, 1986), diatoms (Ostroumov & Maertz-Wente, 1991), plant seedlings (Ostroumov, 1986; 1990; 1991; Nagel et al., 1987; Maximov et al., 1988; Telitchenko & Ostroumov, 1990), shrimp (Drewa et al., 1988), Daphnia magna and D. pulex (e.g., Maki & Bishop, 1979; Martinez et al., 1989), freshwater amphipods (Pantani et al., 1995), rotifers (Kartasheva & Ostroumov, 1998), fish (e.g., Versteeg & Shorter, 1992; Malcolm et al., 1995). Some data on the effects of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) on Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk (Bressan et al., 1989; Marin et al., 1993), Mytilus edulis (Granmo, 1972) and some other marine benthic species (Marin et al., 1991) are available. However, almost nothing was known about the effects of alkylsulfates, nonionic surfactants (derivatives of nonylphenols), and some other surfactants as well as detergents on the filtering activity of Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, Crassostrea gigas, Unio tumidus, and U. pictorum.
The purpose of the experimental part of this work was to obtain data on the effects of some surfactants and surfactant-containing products including detergents, on the ability of bivalves (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, Unio tumidus, and U. pictorum) to filter water and remove algal or other cells from it.
Freshwater mussels Unio sp. were collected in the Moscow River. Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected at the Black Sea. Crassostrea gigas were grown at a mariculture farm (the Black Sea, Institute of Biology of Southern Seas NANU). M. edulis were collected at the Exmouth estuary and kept in tanks with aeration , water flow and periodic automatic imitation of low tide (water was removed out of tanks for 3 h every day) (Dr. Donkin’s participation and help in the work with M. edulis is acknowledged).
The temperature in experiments with M. galloprovincialis and C. gigas was mostly 22-27 C, in the experiments with Unio sp. 18-20 C. The cell removal and the cell density during the filtration by molluscs was measured using Hitachi 200-20 spectrophotometer (experiments with Unio sp.) and SF-26 (LOMO) spectrophotometer (experiments with M. galloprovincialis and C. gigas). In experiments with M. edulis (temperature 16 C), the number of cells per unit of volume was measured using the Coulter counter ( Coulter Electronics, model Industrial D). When a sample of filtered water without adding algae was used, the Coulter count was usually below 200.
The clearance rate (CR) was calculated according to Widdows & Salkeld (1993) using the following equation:
CR (l h-1) = (Volume of water e.g. 2 l) x (loge C1 — logeC2)/time interval in h
where C1 and C2 are cell concentrations at the beginning and end of each time increment (e.g. 0.5 h).
Statistical analysis was performed using EXCEL software. For linear regression analysis, an option was used which gives an opportunity to fix the intercept at a predetermined value.
Several chemicals were used. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (molecular mass 288.38) was purchased from Fluka. The purity was > 99% (assayed by GC, analysis number 332533/1 395). Triton X-100 (TX100) (x = 9-10 ethoxy units, H2O < 1 %, residue on ignition, 0.2%, analysis number 43306/1 795) was purchased also from Fluka. Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TDTMA, molecular mass 336.4) was purchased from Sigma (St.Louis, Missouri, 63178 USA; lot 55H1322). Detergents used were available commercially.
Results of the experimentation were as following.
Freshwater bivalves, Unio tumidus and U. pictorum removed planktonic cells from water. The ability to do so was inhibited by surfactants of several types (Table 4), including TDTMA, and TX100 .
A marine species, M. galloprovincialis, was also efficient in removing from water cells of phytoplankton and unicellular organisms in general. Several surfactants as well as detergents which contain surfactants inhibited this ability of M. galloprovincialis (Table 4). The chemicals tested included surfactants TDTMA, SDS, and several detergents, such as Tide-Lemon, Lotos-Extra, Losk-Universal.
In experiments with M. edulis, after one hour of filtering, in the control set (clean water) the number of algal cells per unit of volume decreased to almost 5.6% of the initial level, which is a good example of how efficiently bivalves can control planktonic populations (Table 5). This is in accord with the large amount of data on the significant filtration rates of bivalves (Alimov, 1981; Monakov, 1998) and their impact on ecosystems (Zaika, 1992). In the important series of measurements, in the control beakers (filtration of unpolluted water) the number of algal cells decreased by a factor of 15.98, while in the beakers with SDS (1 mg l–1) the number of cells decreased by a factor of 7.93. Thus, the algal cell density in control was half that in the system at the initial concentration of 1 mg l–1. The difference increased by the end of the experiment.
When the initial concentration of SDS was 2 mg l–1, a substantial difference from the control set was observed after the first half-hour period (Table 6). After 65 min of filtering, the algal cell density in the control set was almost 1/3 that contained in the system with SDS.
Further increase of the initial concentration of SDS up to 4 mg l–1 caused a dramatic 3-times increase of the cell density over that in the control set after only 35 min of filtering. In 65-min of filtering, the difference was 6-fold, and following 95-min filtering – over 14-fold.
At the initial concentration of SDS 5 mg l–1, the difference between systems with and without SDS was over 16-fold after 125 min of filtering.
It was possible to calculate the clearance rate (CR), using a standard formula widely accepted in the literature (Donkin et al. 1989; 1991; Widdows & Salkeld, 1993).
The summary of the inhibitory effects shows, with a few exceptions, two general trends:
1) an increase in the initial concentration of SDS in the range of 0.5 to 5 mg l–1 gave rise to an the increase in the inhibitory effect on CR (Table 7);
2) at any given concentration of SDS, the highest effect took place during the first 30-min period, with some decrease in the inhibitory effect by the end of the experiment.
The latter trend, however, was not paralleled by a mitigation of the effect on the residual algal cell density in the water. When the cell density was considered, the difference from the control was maximal by the end of the experiment.
Using another chemical, a non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100, we obtained similar data with EC50 close to that of SDS (Table 8). At a concentration of 4 mg l–1, the inhibition of the clearance rate during the time period of 30 min after the beginning of the experiment was almost 10-fold, and during the later period of time, the inhibition was about 5-fold.
The data obtained in our study showed that the filtering activity of mussels demonstrated a more sensitive response than some other biotests we had used in our experiments in bioassaying SDS, including green algae (Goryunova & Ostroumov, 1986) and plant seedlings (Nagel et al., 1987). The filtering activity of mussels was also more sensitive to SDS than some of the traditional lethal biotests with aquatic invertebrates and fish which had been applied for studies of LAS and alkyl sulfates (Sivak et al., 1982; Ostroumov, 1991).
It is noteworthy that the inhibitory effect of SDS on CR was developed within a rather narrow range of SDS concentrations (1 to 5 mg l–1). That could be in accord with a hypothesis that the decrease in CR is at least in part the result of a behavioural response of mussels.
Our data on effects of SDS are in good agreement with the results obtained by other authors who studied effects of another anionic surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) on filtering rate. It was shown that in experiments with exposure for 48 h and 96 h the filtration rate of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was reduced when concentration of dissolved LAS was higher than 1.5 mg l–1 (Bressan et al., 1989). In our experiments the biotest was slightly more sensitive as we exposed the animals to the surfactant for 1.5 h prior to beginning measurements and observed some inhibition at the initial concentration of 1 mg l–1.
Bressan et al. (1989) studied also effects of LAS on the growth of mussels and on mortality and spermatozoids of freshwater bivalve molluscs. They observed some decrease in the increment of length of the major axis of the shell of mussels at concentrations of LAS as low as 0.25 and 0.5 mg l–1, but the effect required up to 70 days to be observed. No significant effects were found within 30 days of their experiments. The length of time that was necessary to reveal the effect was a limitation of the technique, however it was impressive to observe almost a 2-fold decrease in growth when the chronic experiment with a relatively low level of LAS (0.25 mg l–1 ) lasted for 160 days and more.
In a parallel experiment the same authors observed a 30% increase in the respiration of LAS-treated (220 days, 0.25 mg l–1 ) young mussels (Bressan et al., 1989). Unfortunately, they did not specify what they called young mussels.
Some decrease in filtering rate was observed in another set of experiments when the concentration of LAS was 0.25 mg l–1 , but the duration of the surfactant treatment was much longer (220 days) than in our experiment, and the size of mussels was again not specified (Bressan et al., 1989). Also, they have shown that, at a concentration of 1 mg l–1, LAS inhibited the filtration rate after 7 days of exposure. It seems important that in our experiments we observed effects after only 1.5 hours of exposure to the anionic surfactant.
The LC50 (48 h) was about 40 mg l–1 and LC50 (96 h) was about 1.7 mg l–1 (Bressan et al., 1989), which was much lower than in the case of freshwater bivalves Anodonta cygnea and Unio elongatulus. For the latter two species, LC50 (96 h) was about 200 mg l–1 (Bressan et al, 1989). The mobility of spermatozoa of A. cygnea was almost completely inhibited at a concentration of LAS equal to 20 mg l–1.
Measurements of CR were used to quantify the toxic effects of chemicals and to study QSAR (Donkin & Widdows, 1990) for various chemicals, including alkanes and phenyl alkanes (Donkin et al., 1991) as well as such aromatics as toluene, naphthalene, n-propylbenzene, 1-chloronaphthalene, biphenyl etc. (Donkin et al., 1989). Two xenobiotics, including an organotin compound, inhibited the fitration rate by Dressena polymorpha and Crenomytilus grayanus (Mitin, 1984).
The filtering activity of not only bivalves, but also of other filter-feeders is vulnerable to the inhibition by surfactants. In experiments with rotifers Brachionus angularis Gosse, we have shown that TDTMA inhibited their filtration rate and the removal of cells of Chlorella sp. from the water (Kartasheva & Ostroumov, 1998). At a TDTMA concentration of 0.5 mg l–1, the average efficiency of filtration was 58.5% of that in control.
However important these kinds of studies of CR are, it is also important to consider the general consequences of a decrease in the CR for the ecosystem.
The role of the filtering activity of mussels is connected with their high population densities. It was estimated that at Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, mussels represented about 77% (11 kg m -2) of the total community dry weight (Nixon et al., 1971), and numbers of the same order of magnitude were reported for other locations (Seed & Suchanek, 1992). Taking into account that, in our experiments, one mussel with a total wet weight about 8.5 g filtered over 1 L of water per hour, it is easy to estimate that, at high abundancy, a mussel community may filter over 100 L water per hour per 1 m2 of the sea bottom.
A comparison of the tables for residual cell densities and CR for specific concentrations of surfactants shows that even a small decrease in CR produces a large difference in the residual cell density. The latter parameter may be considered as a model for any kind of particles which are being removed from the seawater by mussel filtering. In this way we may predict a huge decline in the natural ability of benthic communities to purify natural water when the water is polluted by surfactants as well as by other chemicals reducing the CR.
Changes (inhibition) of the filtering activity of bivalves might have many consequences in changing many parameters and processes in ecosystems, which were considered in more detail in (Ostroumov et al., 1997; 1998; Ostroumov, 1998).
Those considerations show that the inhibition of CR has consequences not limited by the prosperity of the mussel population, but that it is important for the state of the marine and estuarine ecosystems in much broader terms. Prospects of chemical-induced inhibition of water filtration by bivalves poses some ecological hazards in view of the role of bivalves in eutrophication control. The latter was studied in the case of the ecosystem of Chesapeake Bay (the Atlantic coast of the U.S.A.) (Newell et al., 1999).
5. SENSITIVITY OF PLANKTON GRAZERS TO XENOBIOTICS – ANALOGOUS EVIDENCE FOR ZOOPLANKTON
Analysis of the specific LC50 for Cladocera and various species of algae shows that in case of many pollutants Cladocera are more sensitive than algae. According to the data disseminated at the recent workshop in Netherlands (9-12 December 1999, Den Helder, TNO; participants of the research project: M. Scholten, R. Jak, B. Clement, E. Foekema, P.Hernandez, K.Kaag, H. van Dokkum, M. Smit), in the case of the following pesticides, species of Cladocera (mainly Daphnia magna, D. pulex, Ceriodaphnia dubia) are more sensitive: anilazin, benomyl, bentazon, cyfluthrin, dimethoat, lindan, maneb, zineb, and ziram. In case of several pesticides, it was directly shown that the inhibitory effects on feeding were observed at lower concentrations, than the concentrations which induced mortality. EC50 (effects on feeding within 4-24 h) were lower than LC50 (24-48 h) for endosulfan, diazinon, methyl parathion, lindan, and dichlobenil (according to the data distributed at the same workshop). In case of atrazine, a concentration of 1.6 mg l–1 within 10 min produced 50% reduction in feeding, which shows again that feeding activity is inhibited at concentrations lower than those inducing mortality: LC50 (48 h) was 9.88 mg l–1.
Also, NOEC (No observable effect concentration) was the basis for comparing sensitivities of Cladocera and various species of algae to pesticides. In case of the following chemicals a higher sensitivity of Cladocera was found: azinfos-methyl, cyromazin, diazinon, dimethoat, endosulfan, fenpropathrin, malathion, mecoprop, propoxur, trifluralin, and some other pesticides.
All these data as well as the new evidence in the experiments conducted at TNO during the project led by Dr. M. Scholten (see Table 1) are in accord with the concept that pollutants may impair top-down control of algae. This conclusion is analogous to the conclusion made by us on the basis of our data for benthic filter-feeders.
6. SYNOPTIC OVERVIEW AND GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
Some benthic organisms, including spongi, polychets, bivalves, echinoderms, larvae of insects, ascidia and some others proved to be efficient organisms in filtering water and thereby in reducing the amount of particulate matter suspended in the water. Benthic filter-feeders remove from the surrounding water various suspended particles including algal cells. By doing so, they contribute to natural mechanisms that keep algal populations under some control. That type of top-down control under some circumstances might become especially important. The problem of algal blooms in the context of eutrophication is increasing attention to all mechanisms of control of algal populations including the control by virtue of water filtering by benthic filter-feeders, including bivalves. Some pollutants were shown to be efficient inhibitors that decrease water filtering and resulting grazing phytoplankton. Those chemicals produced a decrease in removal of algae from water column by bivalves.
The author initiated systematic studies of effects of surfactants and detergents on filtering activity and removal of algae by freshwater and marine bivalves. Marine and freeshwater bivalves Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and Unio sp. are efficient in removing unicellular organisms from water in result of their filtration activity. They are capable of drastically reducing the amount of cells of phytoplankton in water. This is an important mechanism contributing to natural control of algal populations in ecosystems. This regulatory mechanism is vulnerable to aquatic pollutants as exemplified by surfactants and detergents. New data are obtained and presented in this paper on how surfactants (anionic, non-ionic, and cationic ones) and surfactant-containing detergents inhibit the ability of marine and freshwater bivalves to remove cells of algae and cyanobacteria from water. On the basis of our new data, the final conclusion is that the new evidence support the views proposed in (Ostroumov, 1998; 1999; 2000c; 2000e) about the vulnerability of the filtration activity of invertebrates (both planktonic and benthic animals) to some pollutants, including surfactants. Our data and general conclusion are in accord with the idea that pollutants can induce reduction in grazing efficiency of benthic and planktonic invertebrates.
We consider the studies of inhibitory effects of chemicals on fiter-feeders as an effective approach to elucidating the details of filter-feeding and associated removal of phytoplankton from the water column. The mechanisms and rates of plankton removal are of utmost importance for controlling levels of plankton which are the key parameters in processes of eutrophication and algal blooms.
Water filtering activity of invertebrates is part of water self-purification in ecosystems. The self-purification of water is one of preconditions for the sustainable use of water resources. Therefore, the vulnerability of filter-feeders to aquatic pollutants (including surfactants and detergents) leads to a potential threat to the sustainable use of aquatic resources in situations when the ability of ecosystems to purify water is inhibited by pollutants.
In sum, on the basis of the data presented here and in some of our publications (Ostroumov, 1998; 1999; 2000a; Ostroumov et al., 1997, 1998; Ostroumov & Fedorov, 1999), the following inferences are to be made:
1. Surfactants inhibit the filtering ability of marine and freshwater bivalves with a drastic effect on the amount of particulate material (modelled here by algal cells) left in the water.
2. When considering the environmental importance of surfactants and detergents (and of a broader range of xenobiotics and pollutants as well), the ramifications relevant to disturbance of the natural ability of the ecosystem to control phytoplankton populations should be taken into account.
3. Our new data are in accordance with the opinion (Ostroumov, 1990; 1991; 2000b; 2000c; 2000d; Telitchenko & Ostroumov, 1990; Yablokov & Ostroumov, 1991) that surfactants, if being discharged into the environment at substancial rates, might, under some circumstances and in some ecosystems, become more significant as environmental pollutants than it was thought before.
4. We make the prediction that many new examples are to be found of pollutants (both organic and inorganic) which inhibit filtration rate of filter-feeders (not only bivalves, but also other benthic and plankton organisms) and by doing so reduce the ability of invertebrates to control unicellular plankton populations. We predict that new examples are to be found of pollutants which inhibit the ability of invertebrates to control eutrophication.
5. Sustainable use of resources of aquatic ecosystems requires as an important pre-condition the efficient functioning of the ecosystems towards self-regulating and water self-purification. This pre-requisite includes normal functioning of top-down control exercised by the organisms at the higher levels of the trophic chains of ecosystems.
6. Studies of inhibitory effects of chemicals on the top-level organisms (e.g., grazers of plankton, including benthic filter-feeders) are a useful approach in obtaining information on the top-down control in trophic chains.
LIST OF TABLES:
Table 1. Top-down control in various natural and experimental systems (examples).
Table 2. Water-filtering activity of benthic organisms in some ecosystems (examples).
Table 3. Xenobiotics and contaminants that were shown to inhibit water-filtering activity of bivalves.
Table 4. New data on the inhibitory effect of surfactants and products that contain surfactants on the filtration efficiency of bivalve molluscs.
Table 5. Decrease in Isochrysis galbana cell density (per 0.5 ml) during filtering by Mytilus edulis in clean water (control beakers, A) and at 1 mg l–1 SDS (experimental beakers, B).
Table 6. Effect of SDS (2 mg l–1) on the efficiency of water filtering measured as the number of cells of Isochrysis galbana (per 0.5 mL) in the water after the 30-min period of filtering by Mytilus edulis.
Table 7. Inhibition (%) of the clearance rate (CR) of Isochrysis galbana during filtering by Mytilus edulis at various concentrations of SDS (after Ostroumov et al., 1998, with some changes).
Table 8. Effect of Triton X-100 on the clearance rate during filtering algae Isochrysis galbana by mussels Mytilus edulis (after Ostroumov et al., 1998, with some changes).
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FAQ on the paper: S. A. Ostroumov. On the Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems: Elements of the Theory.

FAQ: Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems.

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/faq-biotic-self-purification-of-aquatic.html

Previous draft of this file:

FAQ on the paper:

S. A. Ostroumov. On the Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems: Elements of the Theory. – Doklady Biological Sciences. 2004. v.396,  pp.206-211.

www.springerlink.com/index/t0nv6rk522230175.pdf;  full text is online free:

self-purification, aquatic, ecosystems, conceptualization, new, ecology, environmental science, biology, ecotoxicology,  biological, ecotechnology, pollution control, bioassay, hazard assessment, xenobiotics, surfactants, detergents,  pollutants, bivalves, mussels, Mytilus, edulis,  galloprovincialis, oysters, Crassostrea, gigas, filtering, water, quality, ecosystem, safety, sustainability;

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Question. SELF-PURIFICATION. WHAT IS SELF-PURIFICATION?

Answer: Self-purification is the complex process, or, more precisely, a set of natural processes in aquatic ecosystems, which lead to improving or maintaining water quality. Another term with a similar, but not completely the same meaning: assimilative capacity.

**

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Doklady Biological Sciences is a bimonthly journal presenting English translations of current Russian research in the anatomy, cytology, ecology, embryology, endocrinology, evolutionary morphology, experimental morphology, genetic, histology, hydrobiology, immunology, microbiology, morphology, parasitology, physiology, virology, and zoology sections of the Doklady Akademii Nauk (Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences). The Proceedings appear 36 times per year; articles from the selected biological sections are collected, translated, and published bimonthly. The article must be presented for publication by acting Russian or foreign members of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

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Question: HOW BROAD IS THE GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE OF THE AREA OF POTENTIAL RELEVANCE AND APPLICATION OF THE CONCLUSIONS THAT WERE MADE IN THE PAPER?

Answer: Just look on where the paper was cited: it was cited by the authors of other scientific articles who conducted their research in Europe, North America, and Asia (e.g., in China).

**

Question: WHERE THE RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS OF THE PAPER COULD BE APPLIED?

Answer: the results presented in the paper could be applied in explaining and predicting the behaviour of aquatic ecosystems, in securing the safety of the sources of water supply, in protecting biodiversity of aquatic organisms, in aquaculture, and in education.

These countries, regions will benefit from the theory of water self-purification: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/08/these-countries-regions-will-benefit.html

**

Question: IS THIS PAPER AVAILABLE IN OTHER LANGUAGES DIFFERENT FROM ENGLISH? Yes, it is available in Russian, see:

 On the biotic self-purification of aquatic ecosystems: elements of the theory. – DAN (Doklady Akademii Nauk), Vol. 396, 2004, No. 1, p. 136–141. [System of elements of the theory of biotic maintaining the natural purification potential of ecosystems]. The paper was awarded the honorary Diploma from the Academy of Water Sciences (2006). In Russ., translated into Eng.

**

Question: WHICH FUNDAMENTAL ASPECT OF BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ISSUES OF SELF-PURIFICATION OF WATER?

Answer: In biology and ecology, one of the most fundamental and intriguing problems is stability of biological and ecological systems. What makes ecological systems stable under changing circumstances? In case of aquatic ecosystems, this issue is very much connected to the mystery of stability of aquatic habitats, i.e., water quality. This paper gives answers to that question.

**

Question: WHICH OTHER DISCOVERIES WERE MADE BY THE SAME AUTHOR?

Answer: the other discoveries by the same author (S.A.O.) are listed online: http://www.scribd.com/doc/51414359;

And:

18 KEY INNOVATIONS: Dramatic, exciting, startling, revolutionary DISCOVERIES: ecology, environmental sciences, biology. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/18-key-innovations-innovations.html

And:

Environment, ecology: 18 innovations, other files online. Innovative conceptualization: ecosystems; water quality et al. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/10/environment-ecology18-innovations-other.html

Ecology. Key Innovations, Discoveries. The material is a brief summary of innovations in the publications authored and coauthored by Dr. S.A. Ostroumov: ecology, environmental science, biology, ecotoxicology, biogeochemistry, biological, self-purification, water, ecotechnology, pollution control, bioassay, hazard assessment, xenobiotics, surfactants, detergents, heavy metals, toxicity, phytotoxicity, nanomaterials,  pollutants, bivalves, mussels, Mytilus, edulis, galloprovincialis, oysters, Crassostrea, gigas, filtering, water, quality, ecosystem, safery, sustainability;

**

Question: ARE THIS PAPER AND THE ISSUES COVERED IN IT RELEVANT TO AQUACULTURE?

Answer: yes, and it is shown in the following article:

Aquaculture,   Volume 314, Issues 1-4, 2011, Pages 244-251;

doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.01.045;

Feeding activity of mussels (Mytilus edulis) held in the field at an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) site (Salmo salar) and exposed to fish food in the laboratory. Bruce A. MacDonald a,  Shawn M.C. Robinson b and Kelly A. Barrington a;

**

Question: WHICH OTHER PUBLICATIONS PROVIDE MORE DETAIL ON THE ISSUES COVERED IN THIS PAPER [BY S.A.O.]?

Answer: those publications are available on the sites that are listed here:

Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002. vol. 469, pages 117-129; [ key words: Improving water quality, sustainability, environment safety] http://www.scribd.com/doc/52598579

On Some Issues of Maintaining Water Quality and Self-Purification.  – Water Resources, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2005, pp. 305–313 [Translated from Vodnye Resursy, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2005, pp. 337–346] http://www.scribd.com/doc/57511892

**

1.Legendary.discoveries.(New Draft). Innovative Concepts of How Ecosystems Improve Water Quality. Theory of water self-purification. http://www.scribd.com/doc/104854412

**

 

Legendary.discoveries. 3 (NewDraft).Inhibitory analysis: New method to explore regulatory mechanisms, top-down control in ecosystems: issues of eutrophication, algal bloom, self-purification:  http://www.scribd.com/doc/104974742

** On the multifunctional role of the biota in the self-purification of aquatic ecosystems. -RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, 2005, 36 (6): 414-420. http://www.scribd.com/doc/104742632

**

Ostroumov S. A. Basics of the molecular-ecological mechanism of water quality formation and water self-purification. – CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF ECOLOGY, 2008, 1 (1): 147-152. http://www.scribd.com/doc/104724760;

** http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sergei_Ostroumov/blog/6882_scribd_fulltexts;

http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sergei_Ostroumov/blog/6766_EcologyEnvironmentonlinefree;

http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sergei_Ostroumov/blog/5653_Water_Quality_Ecology_papers_available;

http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1899/07-058.1

**

Question: WHERE WAS THIS PAPER CITED?

Answer: Some examples are below:

Estimation of critical nutrient amounts based on input-output analysis in an agriculture watershed of eastern China:

[PDF] from hua.edu.vn DJ Chen, J Lu, YN Shen, RA Dahlgren… – Agriculture, Ecosystems & …, 2009 – Elsevier

The concept of critical nutrient amounts (CNA) for a watershed was developed to address eutrophication in surface waters from diffuse (non-point) source pollution. CNA is defined as the maximum allowable applied or generated amount (AGA) of a nutrient from natural and human sources that …

*

SA Ostroumov. Biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine and estuarine systems: elements of a qualitative theory:

[PDF] from vliz.be SA Ostroumov – International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography, 2006 – vliz.be

Basic elements are formulated for a qualitative theory of the polyfunctional role of the biota in

maintaining self-purification and water quality in aquatic ecosystems. The elements of the theory

covers the following: (1) sources of energy for the mechanisms of self- purification; (2) the …

 

Self-Purification of Water Current and the Role of Microbiological Transformation of Organic Matter in the System of the Selenga River and Its Delta:

EO Makushkin… – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2005 – Springer;

The purpose of this study was to determine the self- purification elements of the water current

of the Selenga River, the main water source of Lake Baikal, in its lower reaches. For this

purpose, we analyzed our own data on the effects of pollutants, including organic …

*

On studying the hazards of pollution of the biosphere: Effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) on planktonic filter-feeders.

IM Vorozhun… – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2009 – Springer;

The goal of this study was to test whether SDS has an inhibitory effect on the ability of planktonic

filter- feeders Daphnia magna to remove phytoplankton from water during their filtration

activity. Experiments were performed with five-day-old D. magna approximately 1 mm in …

 

Accelerated decrease in surfactant concentration in the water of a microcosm in the presence of plants: Innovations for phytotechnology;

EV Lazareva… – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2009 – Springer;

Surfactants are an important group of membranotropic pollutants [1, 2]. Higher plants, including

aquatic ones, form the basis for phytotechnologies used to purify and remediate natural environment

polluted with various agents [3]. Aquatic plants (macrophytes) can serve as …

 

[PDF] 过水性湖泊自净能力的动态变化

[PDF] from cje.net.cn任瑞 刘茂松 章杰明 张明… – 态学杂志, 2007 – cje.net.cn

Self-purification ability of a water-carrying lake. REN Rui4li1 LIU Mao4song1 ZHANG Jie4

ming2 ZHANG Ming3 XU Mei11 School of Life ScienceNanjing UniversityNanjing

210093 China2 Suqian Bureau of ForestrySuqian 223800JiangsuChina3 …

*

Artificial neural network modelling of concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and dissolved oxygen in a non-point source polluted river in Zhejiang Province, southeast …

D Chen, J Lu… – Hydrological Processes, 2010 – interscience.wiley.com

A back-propagation algorithm neural network (BPNN) was developed to synchronously simulate

concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in response

to agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) for any month and location in the …

*

[PDF] The theory of the hydrobiological mechanism of water self-purification in water bodies: from theory to practice

[PDF] from narod.ru SA Ostroumov – iirc.narod.ru

Abstract. New data on effects of chemicals (surfactants) on water filtration by aquatic invertebrates

are reported. The basics of the new theory of the polyfunctional role of biota in self-purification

of water in aquatic ecosystems (lakes, rivers, man-made reservoirs) are formulated. The …

*

Kinetics of the enzymatic decomposition of macromolecules with a fractal structure;

BM Dolgonosov… – Theoretical Foundations of …, 2007 – Springer;

Study of the decomposition of organic matter in natural water ecosystems and industrial processes

such as the processing of wood and wastewater treatment is of current concern to the solution

of environmental protection problems. The basic hard-to-oxidize components of organic …

*

Decreasing the measurable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the water of the experimental systems containing Ceratophyllum demersum: The …

[PDF] from scipeople.com SA Ostroumov… – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2009 – Springer

Development of VI Vernadsky’s theory of the biosphere has revealed new examples of how

organisms affect the physical and chemical parameters of the environment [1, 2], including the

characteristics of the aquatic environment [3, 4]. Natural aquatic ecosystems have …

*

南太湖地区小型浅水湖泊自净能力季节变化研究

许磊  陈英旭 姚玉鑫 梁新 周李… – 环境科学, 2010 – cqvip.com

期刊大全识社区学者空术机构专题导读值中心客服中心维普资讯

中文期刊·专业文章维普专业检索错误号99 该篇文章不存在或已被移除

<<回到维普资讯首页关于我 | 客服中心 | 广告服 | 权合作 | 网站联盟 …

 *

A related paper (Ostroumov, S. A. 2005. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Hydrobiologia 542:275–286) was cited in this article:

http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1899/07-058.1;

Caryn C. Vaughn, S. Jerrine Nichols, Daniel E. Spooner;

Community and foodweb ecology of freshwater mussels.

Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27(2): 409-423. 2008

doi: 10.1899/07-058.1;

**

Question: WHAT ARE THE RECENT PAPERS BY THE SAME AUTHOR?

Answer. Some of the recent papers by the same author are as following:

Biocontrol of Water Quality: Multifunctional Role of Biota in Water Self-Purification.-Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 80, No. 13, 2010, p. 2754–2761. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/biocontrol-of-water-quality_23.html

 

Publications. Ecology, Environment, Biology. 2009-2010. See online free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/52390944/Publications-2009-2010-E-Int-2;

Areas of science: Ecology, Environment, Biology, Phytotechnology, Water quality, Bioassays: publications in 2009- 2010, authored and coauthored by Dr. S.A. Ostroumov, in English and Russian languages. Some of the other related publications by the same author(s) see at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/51414359; Ecology, Environmental Science; http://www.scribd.com/doc/50443283/Table-WorldWideCiting-March10;   World-wide and international citing of the publications…;

**

Question: IS THERE A CONCISE SUMMARY OF THE MAIN DISCOVERIES MADE IN THE WHOLE SERIES OF RELATED PUBLICATIONS BY THE SAME AUTHOR?

Answer: Yes, the concise summary is available online free:

**

18 KEY INNOVATIONS:  DISCOVERIES: ecology, environmental sciences, biology. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/18-key-innovations-innovations.html

**

Environment, ecology: 18 innovations, other files online. Innovative conceptualization: ecosystems; water quality et al. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/10/environment-ecology18-innovations-other.html

**

Environment, ecology: 18 innovations, other files online. Innovative conceptualization: ecosystems; water quality et al. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/10/environment-ecology18-innovations-other.html

**

INNOVATIONS, DISCOVERIES, in ecology, environmental sciences, biology. 18 Items. Sites in Other Languages, List of One-line Titles. http://www.scribd.com/doc/83168032/

**

ADDENDUM:

**

Why the current measures against water pollution will fail for sure, if the new discoveries are ignored. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/08/why-current-measures-against-water.html

**

Recent web-sites: new and updated: 1500 words, 5 pages

 

**

Selected bibliography: ecology, biogeochemistry, env. science … http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/selected-bibliography-ecology.html

**

Theory of how aquatic ecosystem works toward improving water quality. New: ecological self-purification of water  http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/theory-of-how-aquatic-ecosystem-works.html

**

31 Publications (life science, ecology, environmental science). Articles. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/31-publications-life-science-ecology.html

**

Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas,  Thalassiosira pseudonana, Synechococcus, Fagopyrum esculentum, Oryza sativa, 25 articles published:  http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/10/mytilus-edulis-crassostrea-gigas.html

**

Top of top. Environmental Science: blog posts

**

25 Top Innovations on Water Safety, Ecology. Selected, Indexed by Web of Science. Publications, With Comments on What is New. Publications with DOI; http://www.scribd.com/doc/104782038

**

Water quality and self-purification. Innovative paper of 2010, the reference and the site with the full text available online free.
Addendum: summaries of 25 related publications on environmental sciences.

**

 ________

KEY WORDS: frequently asked questions,

marine, freshwater, mussels, water self-purification, ecosystem, aquatic, water quality, pollutants,  pollution, biosphere, surfactants, detergents, sustainability, environmental safety, ecosystem services, organisms, functions, ecotoxicology, environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, hydrobiology,

Toxicological, Bulletin, Doklady, Biological, Sciences, Akademii, Nauk, hazards, phytotechnology, phytoremediation, S.A.Ostroumov, water, university, xenobiotics, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis,

Secrets of keeping nature in balance. Innovative discovery

A paper was published that discovered new hazards to keeping plankton in balance:

Imbalance of Factors Providing Control of Unicellular Plankton Populations Exposed to Anthropogenic Impact

Journal: Doklady Biological Sciences , vol. 379, no. 1, pp. 341-343, 2001
 The first discovery of how negative effects of pollutants (surfactants) on invertebrate animals (filter-feeders) may lead to a change (increase) in abundance of plankton organisms in water; the first data on how the effects of polluting chemicals on invertebrate animals (filter-feeders) may produce an imbalance in the set of the factors controlling the populations of plankton.

  • Detailed abstract: http://scipeople.ru/publication/67505/;
  • ABSTRACT:
  • Ostroumov S.A. Imbalance of factors providing control of unicellular plankton populations exposed to anthropogenic impact. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001. Vol. 379, P. 341-343. 4 tables. Bibliogr.12 refs. (Translated from DAN 2001. Vol. 379. P.136-138). ISSN 0012-4966 (Print) 1608-3105 (Online). PMID: 12918370 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]. The paper presents and analyzes new experimental data on the effects of chemical pollution of aquatic medium on the abundance of unicellular plankton organisms. The following 6 types of effects of filter-feeders and chemical pollutants [surfactants and detergents (mixtures)] on phytoplankton organisms were found (examples were given in this paper in Tab.2): (1) Inhibition of growth (and abundance); (2) Growth stimulation in the presence of surfactants and detergents; (3) Decrease in abundance as a result of elimination of plankton cells from water by the freshwater mollusks Unio tumidus and rotifers; (4) Abundance decrease as a result of water filtration by the marine mollusks Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and Crassostrea gigas; (5) Decrease in the efficiency of cell elimination from water caused by the TX-100-induced (5 mg/l) inhibition of the filtration activity of the freshwater mollusks U. tumidus; (6) Decrease in the efficiency of cell elimination from water as a result of inhibition of the filtration activity of the marine mollusks Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas induced by surfactants and Avon Herbal Care (hair shampoo). A new parameter and formula is suggested: the efficiency of cell elimination from water, ECE. The following maximum values of ECE were found (at the concentrations of the chemical, mg/l, in brackets): (1) Detergent OMO, Unio tumidus, 186.7 (50); (2) Detergent Losk-Universal, Mytilus galloprovincialis, 551.7 (7); (3) Detergent Tide-Lemon, Mytilus galloprovincialis, 206.9 (50); (4) Detergent IXI, M. galloprovincialis, 157.8 (10); (5) Detergent Deni-Automat, Crassostrea gigas, 10 800.0 (30); (6) Detergent Lanza, Crassostrea gigas, 261.7 (20); (7) Detergent Vesna-Delikat, Crassostrea gigas, 200.0 (1); The tables in the paper: Factors of regulation of unicellular plankton abundance (Tab.1); effects of surfactants and detergents on phytoplankton abundance (Tab.2); 7 detergents inhibit filtration of 3 species of marine and freshwater molluscs (Tab.3); Mytilus galloprovincialis eliminates from water the cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and algae Pavlova lutheri = M. lutheri as a result of filtration (comparing the 2 processes at the same time, Tab. 4). The results obtained in this work demonstrated and proved that certain pollutants might cause a substantial imbalance of the factors controlling unicellular plankton populations. Direct and indirect (mediated by organisms-consumers) effects of certain surfactant-containing mixtures on unicellular plankton could sum with each other, giving rise to mutual amplification. This may cause a complete imbalance of the system. The conclusions made in this work may be applied to unicellular plankton of both marine and freshwater ecosystems, including ecosystems subjected to eutrophication. The results contribute to issues of environmental safety and resource use sustainability. DOI 10.1023/A:1011600213221; www.springerlink.com/index/QGJ756467J2R7470.pdf


  • Full text free:
  • https://sites.google.com/site/1dbs379p341imbalance/ http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065596;

    **

    ·       Environmental sciences, ecology, biology: scientific results obtained at M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, examplesA list of publications of Dr. S.A. Ostroumov, with sites of the full texts FREE, selected:


    ·       KEY WORDSaquaculture,  shellfish,  surfactants, detergents, filtering activity, mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, xenobiotics, pollutants, bivalves, mollusks, assessment, environmental hazards, marine ecosystems, laundry detergents, dish washing liquids, pollutants, pollution, bioassay, water quality, self-purification, estuary, marine ecology, marine, biology, aquatic, toxicology, sodium dodecylsulphate, SDS, cationic surfactant, Animals, Feeding Behavior, physiology, Marine Biology, methods, Mollusca,  Surface-Active Agents, top innovations, discoveries,

New discovery: the heart and core of aquatic ecosystem health

New discovery: the heart and core of aquatic ecosystem health

This new discovery identified what is the essence, heart and core of aquatic ecosystem health. This is a key to water sustainability.

The concept of ecosystem health became popular. What is the core of  ecosystem health in case of aquatic ecosystems (reservoirs, rivers, lakes, seas, estuaries)?

To answer this question, there are a lot of factors to be given attention. One of these factors was  underestimated and almost ignored until now. However, this factor became more visible after the  works conducted at M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University.

This factor is the ability of a healthy ecosystem to improve and maintain water quality, in other words, to perform self-purification of water.

The main features of water self-purification were discovered, described and put into a system  in   a series of  publications of 1998 – 2010 [1-9].

In addition to above-mentioned English papers, the same author published some articles in Russian [10-15]:

Moreover,  the various aspects of self-purification were analyzed in the books of 2004 -2008 [16-18].

Additional discussion of these publications is given at sites  [19-21].

These publications developed a new theory of water self-purification.

In conclusion, the analysis of current literature demonstrated that the ecosystem health of aquatic  -freshwater, estuarine, marine – ecosystems  includes the ability of the biological community to purify water (to perform water self-purification). The modern theory of water self-purification was developed by the author in a series of papers and books, 1998 -2010.

Literature

1. Ostroumov S. A.  Biological filtering and ecological machinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems: towards a holistic view. // Rivista di Biologia / Biology Forum. 1998. 91: 247-258.

2. Ostroumov S. A.  The Concept of Aquatic Biota as a Labile and Vulnerable Component of the Water Self-Purification System. – Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 372, 2000 , pp. 286–289. http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069991;

3. Ostroumov S. A. An aquatic ecosystem: a large-scale diversified bioreactor with a water self-purification function. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2000. Vol. 374, P. 514-516.   scribd.com/doc/49065542;  http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069997; the paper gave a new insight into the core functions and identity of ecosystem as a bioreactor to maintain water quality;

4. Ostroumov S.A.  Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002, vol. 469, p. 117-129; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52598579/;

5. Ostroumov S.A. Polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and  concluding remarks. Hydrobiologia. 2002. V. 469 (1-3): 203-204. http://www.scribd.com/doc/52627327/2H469p203-Polyfunctional-role-w-Addendum;

6. Ostroumov S.A. On the Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems: Elements of the Theory; Doklady Biological Sciences, 2004, v.396, No.1-6; pp.206-211. http://www.scribd.com/doc/48099028/4DBS-On-the-Biotic-Self-Purification-fulltext;

7. Ostroumov S. A.  Aquatic ecosystem as a  bioreactor: water purification and some  other functions.   –   Rivista di Biologia / Biology Forum, 2004, 97 (1): 67-78

8. Ostroumov S. A.  On some issues of maintaining water quality and self-purification.- Water Resources, 2005. Volume 32, Number 3, p. 305-313. http://www.scribd.com/doc/57511892/

9. Ostroumov S. A. Biocontrol of Water Quality: Multifunctional Role of Biota in Water Self-Purification. – Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 80, No. 13, pp. 2754–2761. —http://www.scribd.com/doc/49131150; http://www.scribd.com/doc/73175163/; DOI: 10.1134/S1070363210130086;

10. Остроумов С.А. Концепция водной биоты как лабильного и уязвимого звена системы самоочищения воды // Доклады  РАН (ДАН).  2000. Т.  372. № 2. С. 279-282.

11. Остроумов С.А. Водная  экосистема: крупноразмерный диверсифицированный биореактор с функцией самоочищения воды // ДАН, 2000, Т. 374,  №3. С.427-429. www.scribd.com/doc/57970728/;

12. Остроумов С.А. О биотическом самоочищении водных экосистем. Элементы теории. // Доклады академии наук (ДАН), (2004), том 396. № 1, с. 136–141. scribd.com/doc/57774996/; http://sites.google.com/site/scipaperdan2004selfpurificat/;

13. Остроумов С.А. Биологический механизм самоочищения в природных водоемах и водотоках: теория и практика //   Успехи современной биологии.   2004. Т.124. №5. С. 429-442. http://scipeople.ru/publication/67095/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/57695131/

14. Остроумов С.А. О некоторых вопросах поддержания качества воды и ее самоочищения // Водные ресурсы. 2005. т. 32. № 3. С. 337-347.

15. Остроумов С.А. Элементы теории биоконтроля качества воды: фактор экологической безопасности источников водоснабжения (=Elements of the theory of biocontrol of water quality: a factor in the ecological safety of the sources of water) //  Химическая и биологическая безопасность. 2008. № 5-6. с.36-39. http://rudocs.exdat.com/docs/index-326746.html

16. Ostroumov S.A.  Biotic Mechanism of Self-purification of Freshwater and Marine Water. (Ecological Studies, Hazards, Solutions, vol. 9) Мoscow: МAX Press. 2004.  96 p., Bibliogr. 59-85. Abstract in English. Section in English: p.53-58;  ISBN 5-317-01120-5.; http://scipeople.com/publication/99362/; In Russian:

Остроумов С.А. Биотический механизм самоочищения пресных и морских вод. Элементы теории и приложения = Biotic mechanism of self-purification of freshwater and marine water. http://scipeople.com/publication/99362/; М.: МАКС Пресс. 2004.  96 с. Библиогр.: c. 59-85. ISBN 5-317-01120-5.

17. Ostroumov S.A.  Pollution, Self-purification and Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems. Мoscow: МAX Press.  2005.  100 p.  Bibliogr.: 63-89. Glossary. Extended English abstract (p. 57-62), ISBN 5-317-01213-9. In Russian:

Загрязнение, самоочищение и восстановление водных экосистем = Pollution, self-purification and restoration of aquatic ecosystems. М.: МАКС Пресс. 2005.  100 с.,  Библиогр.: с.63-89. ISBN 5-317-01213-9.

18. Ostroumov S.A.  Aquatic organisms in water self-purification and biogenic migration of elements. Moscow. MAX Press. 2008. 200 p.  ISBN 978-5-317-02625-7. http://scipeople.com/publication/68016/. In Russian:

Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов. М. МАКС-Пресс. 2008. 200 с. Предисловие члена-корр. РАН В.В. Малахова. Библиогр.: с.155-191. (Серия: Наука. Образование. Инновации. Выпуск 9). ISBN 978-5-317-02625-7. http://scipeople.com/publication/68016/.

Some relevant sites:

19 Making water sustainable: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/06/making-water-sustainable.html;

20 Aquatic ecosystems… http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/aquatic-ecosystems-and-water.html;

21 Water quality… http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/water-quality-ecosystems-more-facts-to.html

**

**

About the author (Dr. S.A.O., Fulbright Award winner):

http://www.scribd.com/doc/80074854/

http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

Twitter: http://twitter.com/Sergeiost

Citation of this author:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/world-wide-and-international-citing-of.html

 

Key words:

reservoirs, rivers, lakes, seas, estuaries, Biotic Mechanism, Self-purification, Freshwater, Marine Water, Aquatic organisms, water, Pollution, Restoration, Aquatic Ecosystems,