New key to red tides and other environmental challenges:Inhibitory analysis: Discovery and innovation in environmental sciences and ecology

Inhibitory analysis in ecology.

This is about a discovery and innovation in environmental sciences and ecology, item 3 on the list of 18 (the list see here [3])

This new approach in ecology allows to see better the real role of organisms of a higher trophic level in regulation of the organisms of a lower trophic level.

The method that was applied was to inhibit the functional activity of the organisms of a higher trophic level and to observe the consequences: what happens with the organisms of a LOWER trophic level.

It was done by the inventor of this methodology in the laboratory experimental systems with bivalve mollusks that that a higher trophic level organisms as compared to phytoplankton algae. The algae are a lower trophic level organisms as compared to bivalve mollusks. The bivalves feed on algae.

In my experiments, I decreased trophic activity of bivalves using special chemical inhibitors. I used my previous discovery that some chemical – surfactants – can decrease filtering activity of bivalves (more about this discovery see:   http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/15/new-facts-on-hazardous-biological-and-toxic-effects-of-surfactants-and-detergents-paradigm-shifted/ ).

The result of this series of experiments was very clear: as a result of my inhibition of the organisms of the  higher trophic level (bivalves) I observed a very significant increase in abundance of the organisms of a lower trophic level (algae). The increase was – in some experiments – manifold.

 

What is the significance of this scientific result? It is really important as the abundance of phytoplankton algae is of great practical importance in such phenomena as eutrophication and algal blooms (also cyanobacterial blooms, red tides, brown tides, etc.). As a result, we got an instrument that helps us to evaluate and quantify the role of organisms of a higher trophic level (such as bivalve mollusks in water bodies and streams) to regulate and control the organisms of a lower trophic level (such as phytoplankton algae and cyanobacteria). Actually it is about how nature prevents us and itself from environmental disasters which happen when we damage those beneficial natural mechanisms of control. We know those disasters under the names of eutrophication and algal blooms.

 

The summary is given below.

A new approach was developed  to explore top-down control in ecosystems: eutrophication, algal bloom, water self-purification.

New facts were discovered by the author about the organisms which are filter-feeders (suspension-feeders), these facts led to developing the new methodology to quantify the natural control mechanisms described above.

This new approach gave methodology to  quantitatively estimate  the role of organisms in regulation via food web in ecosystem.  See more detail about this discovery on the site [1] and in the publication [2].

 

References:

1

http://www.scribd.com/doc/61179989/3-Legendary-discoveries-top-Down-Control-Inhibitory-analysis;

2 Key publication: http://www.moip.msu.ru/?p=154;

3  The list of 18 items on key discoveries and innovations:

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

 

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

 

Key words:

regulation, trophic level, food chain, eutrophication, algal blooms, cyanobacterial blooms, red tide, brown tide, filter-feeders, bivalves, water bodies, streams,

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

About the author:

http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology:

http://scipeople.com/group/380/topic/6102/;

www.scribd.com/doc/83168032/
INNOVATIONS, DISCOVERIES, in ecology, environmental sciences, biology
18 Items, in English;
List of Sites in Other Languages;
List of One-line Titles: Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology
**Part 1. SITES with comments IN SOME WORLD LANGUAGES:
In English:

In Chinese (simp.): http://www.scribd.com/doc/82323589/ In Chinese (trad.): http://www.scribd.com/doc/82374003/In French: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82323068/In-French In Indonesian: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82369704/In-Indonesian;In Italian: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82370780/; In Japanese: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82404969/In-Japanese; In Malay:http://www.scribd.com/doc/82409403/In-Malay; In Portuguese: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82463074/ In Spanish: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82469956/In-Spanish;.
Part 2. THE LIST OF THE DISCOVERIES, INNOVATIONS, FORMULATED IN ONE-LINE SENTENCES:
1. Innovative conceptualization: how ecosystems improve water quality.

2. Fundamentally new facts: hazardous biological and toxic effects of detergents.

3. Inhibitory analysis: A new method to explore top-down control in ecosystems.

4. A contribution to solution: the problem of criteria for environmental hazards.

5. A new contribution to solution: the problem of eutrophication.

6. New measurements: a quantitative estimate: the role of pellets of mollusks.

7. New facts, discovery: pollutants inhibit: fluxes (flows, transfers) of chemical elements.

8. Biomachinery. A new fundamental concept. New scientific term. Authored by Dr. S.A. O.

9. Modernized Terminology. A new improved definition. What is ‘ecosystem’?

10. New key facts. Scientific basis of technology. New phytotechnology: water treatment.

11. A new step. How to solve the problem. Stability of the biosphere.

12. A new component of the mechanism of regulation. Self-organization in the biosphere.

13. New serious hazards: low-level (sublethal) chemical pollution.

14. A new environmental hazard of pollution: damage to links between parts of ecosystems.

15. A new mechanism. How living organisms change the environment.

16. New fundamental concepts, terminology. Two-level synergism: man-made effects;

17. A new anthropogenic factor: initiation, stimulation of algal blooms.

18. New short list. The most urgent topics: environmental research in 21st
century

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

 

Key words:

regulation, trophic level, food chain, eutrophication, algal blooms, cyanobacterial blooms, red tide, brown tide, filter-feeders, bivalves, water bodies, streams,

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

About the author:

http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants.

 

 

Background.

In the previous parts of this series of the material posted, it was explained why it is so important to analyze the issues of aquatic environment, water quality, and related issues of how chemicals interact with aquatic organisms (see Part 1, [1]). Also, it was shown that aquatic organisms contribute a lot to improving water quality, as exemplified by the organisms that are filter-feeders (Part 2, [2]).

Goal.
In this material (which is item 3 to continue the series of previous posts on Environment, Water and Ecology [1, 2]), the goal is to consider additional eye-opening information on chemical pollutants of water, especially on the chemicals that until recently were considered as relatively safe, namely, synthetic surfactants.

Location in industrial products.

These chemicals – surfactants – are components of many industrial products of broad use: laundry detergents, shampoo, liquid soap, dish washing liquid detergents, cosmetics, car cosmetics, pipe washing mixtures (including pipes of various use, e.g., pipes for milk and pipes for gasoline), liquids for fire extinguishers, and even pesticide mixtures of broad use in agriculture, horticulture, and in making lawns and playing grounds for golf to look nice.

Variety of names.

These chemicals are known under various names: surfactants, detergents, tensides, surface-active substances, surface active agents.

Quantity. Discharge that pollutes the environment.

The daily discharge of surfactants to waste waters is more than 10 g per an average inhabitant of urbanized areas, which means a discharge of 10 thousand kilogram in a city of 1 million people, which is equal to 22 thousand pound every day or more than 6 million pound annually!

Safe or not?

Until recently the synthetic surfactants were considered as relatively safe chemicals. Their level of environmental hazard was considered far lower than the environmental hazards from the champions of pollution, the notorious ecotoxicants: heavy metals, chlororganic products, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), insecticides, herbicides, just to list a few …

Innovation and eye-opening discovery.

The point is that recent research [3 – 5] demonstrated that it was a wrong opinion. A key issue is the issue of criteria to use for assessment of  the environmental hazards of chemicals. Recently, a development of new criteria was made [3].
These criteria gave attention not only to easily visible lethal effects of chemicals (increase in mortality of the organisms tested in the experiments) but also to less noticeable sublethal effects (which decrease functional performance of the organisms and finally their health). Moreover, more attention was given to the ecosystem health.

New experiments showed a variety of negative effects of surfactants on bacteria and cyanobacteria, algae, higher plants and invertebrates, including mussels and oysters that are key organisms that are being grown in aquaculture [3-5].
The results on the new approach, and new experiments, were presented in a series of papers [4 ] and the book [5 ]. The results demonstrated that the synthetic surfactants pose a more serious hazard to environment, especially water environment [3 – 5], than it was previously thought.

This is the book [5], in which a large amount of innovative results of bioassay of synthetic surfactants and detergents is presented. As it was mentioned, the experiments discovered many negative effects of these chemicals on bacteria and cyanobacteria, algae, higher plants and aquatic invertebrates.

Bottom line.

As a matter of fact, the discovery is: a new hazard to environment, a new priority in preventing negative effects of chemical pollution, in prevention of deterioration of water quality.

Recognition: international scientific community.

The book mentioned and the related papers were cited by scientists of a number of countries as diverse as U.S.A., Germany, U.K., Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Austria, Spain, Turkey, China, Slovakia, and Argentina (in arbitrary order) [6].

Location of the laboratories.

This research was carried out at Moscow State University (Russia), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (U.K.), University of New York (U.S.A.), University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Institute of Biology of Southern Seas (Crimea, Ukraine). A concise summary was presented in [7].

Foam and surfactants: a contrasting variety of connotations, including Venus, or Aphrodite.

According to legends of the ancient Greek mythology, a foam produced by sea water was a place of birth of the goddess of love, Aphrodite (Venus in mythology of ancient Rome). Love (to Simonetta Vespucci, nicknamed la bella Simonetta) and the legend on Venus inspired a genius painter of Renaissance, Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (c. 1445 – 1510), to create one of the most charming images of the cultural heritage of mankind: The Birth of Venus (in Italian: Nascita di Venere; 1486). However, the research project and the book that summarized its results and was mentioned above added some less charming connotations to another type of foam, namely the foam produced by synthetic surfactants.

Location of this post in the series of posts.

This post is No.3 in the series on Environment, Water and Ecology. The previous posts were:

[1] Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography.

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography


[2] on the discovery of the key role of organisms in making water clear http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/14/discovery-of-the-key-role-of-organisms-that-filter-water-and-make-it-clear/

**

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND KEY SITES:
[1] Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography.

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography


[2] on the discovery of the key role of organisms in making water clear http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/14/discovery-of-the-key-role-of-organisms-that-filter-water-and-make-it-clear/
[3] new criteria for environmental hazards: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60891549; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49088234; www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12852181; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52636721/
[4] series of papers on ecotoxicology of surfactants and detergents: http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065593; http://www.scribd.com/doc/59417067/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52634169/; http://www.springerlink.com/content/p7754h672w814m30/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45914806; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45958156/; scribd.com/doc/59544597/;
[5] on the book Biological Effects of Surfactants : http://www.scribd.com/doc/64066178/;
[6] on citation: www.scribd.com/doc/54504932
[7] summary: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60757545;

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

On the author: http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

Key words:
Venus, Aphrodite, love, goddess, environment, detergents, surfactants, tensides, surface active substances, pollutants, ecotoxicology, environmental, chemistry, water, sustainability; aquatic, ecosystem services, marine, resources, environmental safety, protection, hydrosphere, pollution, control, prevention, decontamination, book, biotesting, bioassay, phytotest, phytotoxicity, ecology, improving, water quality, environmental sciences, purification, self-purification, ecosystem health, freshwater, streams, water bodies, pollution control, sublethal, hazard assessment, aquaculture,

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography


Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology?
Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography.
About 400 billion gallons water is used worldwide each day. The goal of this material is to consider some publications in ecology and environmental science that are focused on aquatic ecosystems and their role in maintaining high level of water quality [see sites 1 – 4]. In pristine aquatic bodies – both marine and freshwater ecosystems – why is water pure, transparent, clear, of high water quality?
Until recently, the scientific fundamentals of this issue have not been completely understood. They were not understood until the recent series of papers authored by a scientist of M.V.Lomonosov Moscow University (see [2, 4]).
In this series of articles, what are the main ACHIEVEMENTS? The key achievements are making a new conceptualization and formulating a multi-aspect theory of how aquatic ecosystems and their biological communities with organisms of many biological species work towards improving water quality. These became the key achievements that were presented in the author’s publications [1-4, and therein].
To facilitate the innovative analysis and formulating a new theory, the author proposed some new scientific terminology [3] .
What are the relevant DISCOVERIES? They are some individual steps towards building this new conceptualization. They are 18 steps (discoveries) that were listed and described in [1].
Many experts think that the wars of future will perhaps be wars for water – in more precise terms, the wars for clear waters, for waters of good water quality. The theory mentioned above is perhaps an encouraging victory in another war – the eternal war of knowledge against ignorance.

 

***
Bibliography and Key sites:
1. http://www.scribd.com/doc/83168032/INNOVATIONS-DISCOVERIES-in-ecology-environmental-sciences-biology-18-Items-w-shrt-List-in-English-List-of-Sites-in-Other-Languages;
2. http://www.scribd.com/doc/82780861/Key-References-more-than-50-with-annotations-on-what-is-new-with-sites-of-free-texts-In-English-Dr-S-A-Ostroumov-Ecology-Environment-Water;
3. http://www.scribd.com/doc/82868065/BioMachinery-for-Maintaining-Water-Quality-and-Natural-Water-Self-purification-in-Marine-and-Estuarine-Systems-elements-of-a-qualitative-theory;
4. http://www.scribd.com/doc/79546542/Bibliography-in-English-Environmental-Science-Ecology-Biology-List-with-annotations-http-www-scribd-com-doc-79546542;

***

Key words:
Ecology, improving, water quality, fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography, environmental sciences, purification, self-purification, ecosystem health, ecosystem services, freshwater, marine, aquatic, resources, streams, water bodies, pollution control,