Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology:

http://scipeople.com/group/380/topic/6102/;

www.scribd.com/doc/83168032/
INNOVATIONS, DISCOVERIES, in ecology, environmental sciences, biology
18 Items, in English;
List of Sites in Other Languages;
List of One-line Titles: Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology
**Part 1. SITES with comments IN SOME WORLD LANGUAGES:
In English:

In Chinese (simp.): http://www.scribd.com/doc/82323589/ In Chinese (trad.): http://www.scribd.com/doc/82374003/In French: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82323068/In-French In Indonesian: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82369704/In-Indonesian;In Italian: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82370780/; In Japanese: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82404969/In-Japanese; In Malay:http://www.scribd.com/doc/82409403/In-Malay; In Portuguese: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82463074/ In Spanish: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82469956/In-Spanish;.
Part 2. THE LIST OF THE DISCOVERIES, INNOVATIONS, FORMULATED IN ONE-LINE SENTENCES:
1. Innovative conceptualization: how ecosystems improve water quality.

2. Fundamentally new facts: hazardous biological and toxic effects of detergents.

3. Inhibitory analysis: A new method to explore top-down control in ecosystems.

4. A contribution to solution: the problem of criteria for environmental hazards.

5. A new contribution to solution: the problem of eutrophication.

6. New measurements: a quantitative estimate: the role of pellets of mollusks.

7. New facts, discovery: pollutants inhibit: fluxes (flows, transfers) of chemical elements.

8. Biomachinery. A new fundamental concept. New scientific term. Authored by Dr. S.A. O.

9. Modernized Terminology. A new improved definition. What is ‘ecosystem’?

10. New key facts. Scientific basis of technology. New phytotechnology: water treatment.

11. A new step. How to solve the problem. Stability of the biosphere.

12. A new component of the mechanism of regulation. Self-organization in the biosphere.

13. New serious hazards: low-level (sublethal) chemical pollution.

14. A new environmental hazard of pollution: damage to links between parts of ecosystems.

15. A new mechanism. How living organisms change the environment.

16. New fundamental concepts, terminology. Two-level synergism: man-made effects;

17. A new anthropogenic factor: initiation, stimulation of algal blooms.

18. New short list. The most urgent topics: environmental research in 21st
century

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

 

Key words:

regulation, trophic level, food chain, eutrophication, algal blooms, cyanobacterial blooms, red tide, brown tide, filter-feeders, bivalves, water bodies, streams,

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

About the author:

http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

Seafood: New threat to aquaculture of marine mussels … and cultural heritage of Europe

  New threat to aquaculture of marine mussels
This is about the bivalve mollusk, blue mussel Mytilus edulis.

Background

Marine mussels are a source of delicious and healthy food. Marine mussels are a staple of many seafood dishes in various cuisines including Spanish, French, Italian, Dutch, Portuguese, Belgian, and others …
They are cultivated as aquaculture.

The pictures of these mollusks, with the Latin name Mytilus edulis, are given below.
 
   
  

 

The life cycle of marine mussels is presented here:

 

The geographical range of this species is on the map:

 

Discovery, scientific innovation.

New research discovered a new threat to marine mussels. It was found [2-7] that the mussels decreased their water filtration rate under the effect of some synthetic chemicals that pollute seawater. The name of these organic chemicals is surfactants (surface active substances, surface active agents). The surfactants are the key foam-forming component of detergents and shampoos.

Additional scientific information.

More about the effects of surfactants see in the blogs [1], and in the scientific papers [2 – 7 ].
This post is the forth one, to continue the series of posts on environmental and ecological issues [1-3].

Mussels and cultural heritage: poetry

Marine mussels  were mentioned in the song – the song that tells the fictional tale of a beautiful fishmonger :

In Dublin’s fair city,
Where the girls are so pretty,
I first set my eyes on sweet Molly Malone,
As she wheeled her wheel-barrow,
Through streets broad and narrow,
Crying, “Cockles and mussels, alive, alive,
[“Molly Malone” (also known as “Cockles and Mussels” or “In Dublin’s Fair City“),
a popular song, set in Dublin, Ireland,
which has become the unofficial anthem of Dublin City]

 

A legend grew up that there was a lady Molly, who lived in the 17th century.

In some books, she  is  represented as a hawker by day and part-time prostitute by night [8].

In 1988 the Dublin Millennium Commission endorsed claims concerning a Molly Malone who died on 13 June 1699, and proclaimed 13 June to be “Molly Malone day”  [8].

The Molly Malone statue:

The Molly Malone statue in Grafton Street (Dublin) was unveiled by Lord Mayor of Dublin, Alderman Ben Briscoe during the 1988 Dublin Millennium celebrations, declaring 13 June as Molly Malone Day.

This poem and song became really important.

Therefore, conservation and survival of this species of bivalve mollusks is important from various perspectives: not only for reasons of food but also for reasons of cultural heritage.

References (marine mussels Mytilus edulis were studied):
[1]

http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/15/will-wars-of-future-be-related-to-modern-science-and-theories-of-ecology-key-issues-water-quality-scientific-fundamentals-achievements-discoveries-bibliography/;

http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/14/discovery-of-the-key-role-of-organisms-that-filter-water-and-make-it-clear/;

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

**
[2] Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia, Vol. 469, No. 1. , pp. 117-129, [Improving water quality, sustainability, environment safety] http://www.scribd.com/doc/52598579/;

**

[3] An Amphiphilic Substance Inhibits the Mollusk Capacity to Filter out Phytoplankton Cells from Water. – Biology Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 1. , pp. 95-102, doi:10.1023/A:1026671024000

**

[4] Studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filter-feeding bivalves. – Hydrobiologia, Vol. 500, No. 1. , pp. 341-344, doi:10.1023/A:1024604904065;
**
[5] О биотическом самоочищении водных экосистем. Элементы теории. – Доклады Академии Наук (ДАН, Doklady Akademii Nauk). Vol.396. No. 1. p.136-141 : http://www.scribd.com/doc/83048698/, http://www.scribd.com/ar55/d/48099028, http://www.scribd.com/doc/57774996;
**
[6] Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders; In: Aquatic Biodiversity II, (edited by: H. Segers, K. Martens) Vol. 180, pp. 275-286, doi:10.1007/1-4020-4111-X_26;

**
[7] Also see: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59437439/;

[8] Siobhán Marie Kilfeather, Dublin: a cultural history, Oxford University Press US, 2005, p. 6.

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

On the author: http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

key words: New threat, aquaculture, marine mussels, blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, staple food, seafood, dishes, cuisines, pollution, detergents, surfactants, water quality, environmental toxicology, аквакультура, мидии, детергенты,

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants.

 

 

Background.

In the previous parts of this series of the material posted, it was explained why it is so important to analyze the issues of aquatic environment, water quality, and related issues of how chemicals interact with aquatic organisms (see Part 1, [1]). Also, it was shown that aquatic organisms contribute a lot to improving water quality, as exemplified by the organisms that are filter-feeders (Part 2, [2]).

Goal.
In this material (which is item 3 to continue the series of previous posts on Environment, Water and Ecology [1, 2]), the goal is to consider additional eye-opening information on chemical pollutants of water, especially on the chemicals that until recently were considered as relatively safe, namely, synthetic surfactants.

Location in industrial products.

These chemicals – surfactants – are components of many industrial products of broad use: laundry detergents, shampoo, liquid soap, dish washing liquid detergents, cosmetics, car cosmetics, pipe washing mixtures (including pipes of various use, e.g., pipes for milk and pipes for gasoline), liquids for fire extinguishers, and even pesticide mixtures of broad use in agriculture, horticulture, and in making lawns and playing grounds for golf to look nice.

Variety of names.

These chemicals are known under various names: surfactants, detergents, tensides, surface-active substances, surface active agents.

Quantity. Discharge that pollutes the environment.

The daily discharge of surfactants to waste waters is more than 10 g per an average inhabitant of urbanized areas, which means a discharge of 10 thousand kilogram in a city of 1 million people, which is equal to 22 thousand pound every day or more than 6 million pound annually!

Safe or not?

Until recently the synthetic surfactants were considered as relatively safe chemicals. Their level of environmental hazard was considered far lower than the environmental hazards from the champions of pollution, the notorious ecotoxicants: heavy metals, chlororganic products, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), insecticides, herbicides, just to list a few …

Innovation and eye-opening discovery.

The point is that recent research [3 – 5] demonstrated that it was a wrong opinion. A key issue is the issue of criteria to use for assessment of  the environmental hazards of chemicals. Recently, a development of new criteria was made [3].
These criteria gave attention not only to easily visible lethal effects of chemicals (increase in mortality of the organisms tested in the experiments) but also to less noticeable sublethal effects (which decrease functional performance of the organisms and finally their health). Moreover, more attention was given to the ecosystem health.

New experiments showed a variety of negative effects of surfactants on bacteria and cyanobacteria, algae, higher plants and invertebrates, including mussels and oysters that are key organisms that are being grown in aquaculture [3-5].
The results on the new approach, and new experiments, were presented in a series of papers [4 ] and the book [5 ]. The results demonstrated that the synthetic surfactants pose a more serious hazard to environment, especially water environment [3 – 5], than it was previously thought.

This is the book [5], in which a large amount of innovative results of bioassay of synthetic surfactants and detergents is presented. As it was mentioned, the experiments discovered many negative effects of these chemicals on bacteria and cyanobacteria, algae, higher plants and aquatic invertebrates.

Bottom line.

As a matter of fact, the discovery is: a new hazard to environment, a new priority in preventing negative effects of chemical pollution, in prevention of deterioration of water quality.

Recognition: international scientific community.

The book mentioned and the related papers were cited by scientists of a number of countries as diverse as U.S.A., Germany, U.K., Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Austria, Spain, Turkey, China, Slovakia, and Argentina (in arbitrary order) [6].

Location of the laboratories.

This research was carried out at Moscow State University (Russia), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (U.K.), University of New York (U.S.A.), University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Institute of Biology of Southern Seas (Crimea, Ukraine). A concise summary was presented in [7].

Foam and surfactants: a contrasting variety of connotations, including Venus, or Aphrodite.

According to legends of the ancient Greek mythology, a foam produced by sea water was a place of birth of the goddess of love, Aphrodite (Venus in mythology of ancient Rome). Love (to Simonetta Vespucci, nicknamed la bella Simonetta) and the legend on Venus inspired a genius painter of Renaissance, Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (c. 1445 – 1510), to create one of the most charming images of the cultural heritage of mankind: The Birth of Venus (in Italian: Nascita di Venere; 1486). However, the research project and the book that summarized its results and was mentioned above added some less charming connotations to another type of foam, namely the foam produced by synthetic surfactants.

Location of this post in the series of posts.

This post is No.3 in the series on Environment, Water and Ecology. The previous posts were:

[1] Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography.

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography


[2] on the discovery of the key role of organisms in making water clear http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/14/discovery-of-the-key-role-of-organisms-that-filter-water-and-make-it-clear/

**

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND KEY SITES:
[1] Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography.

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography


[2] on the discovery of the key role of organisms in making water clear http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/14/discovery-of-the-key-role-of-organisms-that-filter-water-and-make-it-clear/
[3] new criteria for environmental hazards: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60891549; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49088234; www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12852181; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52636721/
[4] series of papers on ecotoxicology of surfactants and detergents: http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065593; http://www.scribd.com/doc/59417067/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52634169/; http://www.springerlink.com/content/p7754h672w814m30/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45914806; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45958156/; scribd.com/doc/59544597/;
[5] on the book Biological Effects of Surfactants : http://www.scribd.com/doc/64066178/;
[6] on citation: www.scribd.com/doc/54504932
[7] summary: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60757545;

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

On the author: http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

Key words:
Venus, Aphrodite, love, goddess, environment, detergents, surfactants, tensides, surface active substances, pollutants, ecotoxicology, environmental, chemistry, water, sustainability; aquatic, ecosystem services, marine, resources, environmental safety, protection, hydrosphere, pollution, control, prevention, decontamination, book, biotesting, bioassay, phytotest, phytotoxicity, ecology, improving, water quality, environmental sciences, purification, self-purification, ecosystem health, freshwater, streams, water bodies, pollution control, sublethal, hazard assessment, aquaculture,

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

 

  Recent data demonstrated a gigantic role of aquatic organisms in making water clean and clear. It was shown in the long-term international project that was carried out recently. The amazing results were presented in this paper, which is a review of the multi-year studies of aquatic organisms, mainly marine and freshwater invertebrates that are filter-feeders – freshwater mussels, marine mussels, oysters. They play a key role as biological filters – as an important part of the biosphere and hydrosphere. The studies were conducted in laboratories of four countries, including U.K. (England), Russia, Ukraine.

Publication:
Ostroumov S.A. Biological filters are an important part of the biosphere – Science in Russia. 2009. No. 2. P. 30-36, in English. [The journal ‘Science in Russia’ is published by the Presidium of Russian Academy of Sciences, both in English and in Russian; Nauka Publishers, Moscow; ISSN 0869-7078. www.ras.ru, ©Russian Academy of Sciences Presidium.] Full text of the paper see:
http://b23.ru/n4v7;

Additional in-depth analysis of the role of aquatic organisms that filter water was given also in the papers:
Ostroumov S.A. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders // Hydrobiologia. 2005. Vol. 542, No. 1. P. 275 – 286. text: www.scribd.com/doc/44105992/
Also:


http://b23.ru/n1d2;
http://www.scribd.com/doc/45914806 [planktonic filter-feeders];


see also Chapter entitled: “Suspension-feeders as factors influencing water quality in aquatic ecosystems”
in the book: http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2248557

 

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,