Phytotoxicity of a surfactant-containing product towards macrophytes.

Phytotoxicity of a surfactant-containing product towards macrophytes.

Russian Journal of General Chemistry.

2013, Volume 83, Issue 13, pp. 2614-2617.

S. A. Ostroumov,  E. A. Solomonova  (Moscow State University).

DOI 10.1134/S1070363213130057 ; http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S1070363213130057;

Abstract:

Extending the studies of surfactant-containing products, we have investigated the effect of the Liquid Crystal Concentrate detergent on aquatic macrophytes Elodea canadensis within laboratory microcosms. It has been shown that the detergent produced some negative influence on the macrophytes at 50–150 μL/mL (5–15 vol %).

Key words:

aquatic, detergent, ecotoxicology, Elodea canadensis, macrophytes, phytotest, phytotoxicity, plants, pollution,  toxicity, water, biotest, environmental, hazard, assessment, ecotoxicant, synthetic surfactants,

  • Original Russian Text © S.A. Ostroumov, E.A. Solomonova, 2012, published in: Ekologicheskaya Khimiya, 2012, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 112–116.

Title:

 

Phytotoxicity of a surfactant-containing product towards macrophytes;

Journal: Russian Journal of General Chemistry;

Volume 83, Issue 13 , pp 2614-2617 ;

DOI 10.1134/S1070363213130057; 

Print ISSN 1070-3632; Online ISSN 1608-3350;

Publisher: Springer US;

 

 

  1. Ostroumov, S.A., Vest. Mosk. Gos. Univ., Ser. 16: Biologiya, 1990, no. 2, p. 27.
  2. Ostroumov, S.A., Biologicheskie effekty pri vozdeistvii poverkhnostno-aktivnykh veshhestv na organizmy (Biological Effects of Surfactants on Organisms), Moscow: MAKS-Press, 2001.
  3. Ostroumov, S.A. and Solomonova, E.A., Toksil. Vest., 2010, no. 2, p. 10.
  4. Ostroumov, S.A. and Solomonova, E.A., Toksil. Vest., 2007, no. 1, p. 40.
  5. Ostroumov, S.A. and Solomonova, E.A., Toksil. Vest., 2009, no. 3, p. 489.
  6. Solomonova, E.A. and Ostroumov, S.A., Toksil. Vest., 2009, no. 2, p. 32.
  7. Aizdaicher, N.A. and Markina, Zh.V., Biologiya Morya, 2006, vol. 32, no. 1, p. 50.
  8. Fisher, N., Maertz-Wernte, M., and Ostroumov, S.A., Izv. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Biologicheskaya, 1996, no. 1, p. 91.
  9. Markina, Zh.V. and Aizdaicher, N.A., Biologiya Morya, 2005, vol. 31, no. 4, p. 274.
  10. Ostroumov, S.A., Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin, 1990, vol. 45, no. 2, p. 26.
  11. Ostroumov, S.A., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1992, vol. 203, no. 1, p. 302.
  12. Ostroumov, S.A., Russ. Chem. Rev., 1991, 60(3), p. 265. CrossRef
  13. Ostroumov, S.A. and Khoroshilov, V.S., Izv. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Biologicheskaya, 1992, no. 3, p. 452.
  14. Ostroumov, S.A. adn Maximov, V.N., Izv. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Biologicheskaya, 1991, no. 4, p. 571.
  15. Ostroumov, S.A. and Samoilenko, L.S., Vest. Mosk. Univ., Ser. 16: Biologiya, 1990, no. 3, p. 74.
  16. Ostroumov, S.A. and Semykina, N.A., Russian Journal of Ecology, 1993, vol. 24, no. 6, p. 386.
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  18. Petukhov, V.N., Fomchenkov, V.M., Chugunov, V.A., and Kholodenko, V.P., Appl. Biochem. Microbiol., 2000, vol. 36, no. 6, p. 564. CrossRef
  19. Solomonova, E.A. and Ostroumov, S.A., Moscow Univ. Biol. Sci. Bull., 2007, vol. 62, no. 4, p. 176; DOI 10.3103/S0096392507040074. CrossRef
  20. Waterbury, J. and Ostroumov, S.A., Microbiology, 1994, vol. 63, no. 2, p. 140.
  21. Yablokov, A.V. and Ostroumov, S.A., Conservation of Living Nature and Resources: Problems, Trends, and Prospects, Berlin: Springer, 1991. CrossRef
  • **

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants.

 

 

Background.

In the previous parts of this series of the material posted, it was explained why it is so important to analyze the issues of aquatic environment, water quality, and related issues of how chemicals interact with aquatic organisms (see Part 1, [1]). Also, it was shown that aquatic organisms contribute a lot to improving water quality, as exemplified by the organisms that are filter-feeders (Part 2, [2]).

Goal.
In this material (which is item 3 to continue the series of previous posts on Environment, Water and Ecology [1, 2]), the goal is to consider additional eye-opening information on chemical pollutants of water, especially on the chemicals that until recently were considered as relatively safe, namely, synthetic surfactants.

Location in industrial products.

These chemicals – surfactants – are components of many industrial products of broad use: laundry detergents, shampoo, liquid soap, dish washing liquid detergents, cosmetics, car cosmetics, pipe washing mixtures (including pipes of various use, e.g., pipes for milk and pipes for gasoline), liquids for fire extinguishers, and even pesticide mixtures of broad use in agriculture, horticulture, and in making lawns and playing grounds for golf to look nice.

Variety of names.

These chemicals are known under various names: surfactants, detergents, tensides, surface-active substances, surface active agents.

Quantity. Discharge that pollutes the environment.

The daily discharge of surfactants to waste waters is more than 10 g per an average inhabitant of urbanized areas, which means a discharge of 10 thousand kilogram in a city of 1 million people, which is equal to 22 thousand pound every day or more than 6 million pound annually!

Safe or not?

Until recently the synthetic surfactants were considered as relatively safe chemicals. Their level of environmental hazard was considered far lower than the environmental hazards from the champions of pollution, the notorious ecotoxicants: heavy metals, chlororganic products, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), insecticides, herbicides, just to list a few …

Innovation and eye-opening discovery.

The point is that recent research [3 – 5] demonstrated that it was a wrong opinion. A key issue is the issue of criteria to use for assessment of  the environmental hazards of chemicals. Recently, a development of new criteria was made [3].
These criteria gave attention not only to easily visible lethal effects of chemicals (increase in mortality of the organisms tested in the experiments) but also to less noticeable sublethal effects (which decrease functional performance of the organisms and finally their health). Moreover, more attention was given to the ecosystem health.

New experiments showed a variety of negative effects of surfactants on bacteria and cyanobacteria, algae, higher plants and invertebrates, including mussels and oysters that are key organisms that are being grown in aquaculture [3-5].
The results on the new approach, and new experiments, were presented in a series of papers [4 ] and the book [5 ]. The results demonstrated that the synthetic surfactants pose a more serious hazard to environment, especially water environment [3 – 5], than it was previously thought.

This is the book [5], in which a large amount of innovative results of bioassay of synthetic surfactants and detergents is presented. As it was mentioned, the experiments discovered many negative effects of these chemicals on bacteria and cyanobacteria, algae, higher plants and aquatic invertebrates.

Bottom line.

As a matter of fact, the discovery is: a new hazard to environment, a new priority in preventing negative effects of chemical pollution, in prevention of deterioration of water quality.

Recognition: international scientific community.

The book mentioned and the related papers were cited by scientists of a number of countries as diverse as U.S.A., Germany, U.K., Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Austria, Spain, Turkey, China, Slovakia, and Argentina (in arbitrary order) [6].

Location of the laboratories.

This research was carried out at Moscow State University (Russia), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (U.K.), University of New York (U.S.A.), University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Institute of Biology of Southern Seas (Crimea, Ukraine). A concise summary was presented in [7].

Foam and surfactants: a contrasting variety of connotations, including Venus, or Aphrodite.

According to legends of the ancient Greek mythology, a foam produced by sea water was a place of birth of the goddess of love, Aphrodite (Venus in mythology of ancient Rome). Love (to Simonetta Vespucci, nicknamed la bella Simonetta) and the legend on Venus inspired a genius painter of Renaissance, Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (c. 1445 – 1510), to create one of the most charming images of the cultural heritage of mankind: The Birth of Venus (in Italian: Nascita di Venere; 1486). However, the research project and the book that summarized its results and was mentioned above added some less charming connotations to another type of foam, namely the foam produced by synthetic surfactants.

Location of this post in the series of posts.

This post is No.3 in the series on Environment, Water and Ecology. The previous posts were:

[1] Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography.

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography


[2] on the discovery of the key role of organisms in making water clear http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/14/discovery-of-the-key-role-of-organisms-that-filter-water-and-make-it-clear/

**

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND KEY SITES:
[1] Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography.

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography


[2] on the discovery of the key role of organisms in making water clear http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/14/discovery-of-the-key-role-of-organisms-that-filter-water-and-make-it-clear/
[3] new criteria for environmental hazards: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60891549; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49088234; www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12852181; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52636721/
[4] series of papers on ecotoxicology of surfactants and detergents: http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065593; http://www.scribd.com/doc/59417067/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52634169/; http://www.springerlink.com/content/p7754h672w814m30/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45914806; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45958156/; scribd.com/doc/59544597/;
[5] on the book Biological Effects of Surfactants : http://www.scribd.com/doc/64066178/;
[6] on citation: www.scribd.com/doc/54504932
[7] summary: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60757545;

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

On the author: http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

Key words:
Venus, Aphrodite, love, goddess, environment, detergents, surfactants, tensides, surface active substances, pollutants, ecotoxicology, environmental, chemistry, water, sustainability; aquatic, ecosystem services, marine, resources, environmental safety, protection, hydrosphere, pollution, control, prevention, decontamination, book, biotesting, bioassay, phytotest, phytotoxicity, ecology, improving, water quality, environmental sciences, purification, self-purification, ecosystem health, freshwater, streams, water bodies, pollution control, sublethal, hazard assessment, aquaculture,

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents, paradigm shifted on bioassay to assess environmental hazards of chemicals / pollutants /xenobiotics / waste waters: new conceptualization
[Series of posts on fundamental legendary discoveries in environmental sciences. Item 2];

See also: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60757545/ ;

THE QUESTIONS THAT WERE ANSWERED in the BOOK entitled ‘Biological Effects of Surfactants’:
1. Do detergents and synthetic surfactants pose any serious hazard to environment? the Answer given by the book: Yes, they do;
2. Do all types of detergents and washing mixtures pose that hazard – including, e.g. laundry detergents and shampoos? The Answer given by the book: Yes, they do;
3. How broad is the spectrum of negative biological effects produced by surfactants and detergents? The Answer given by the book: it is really broad and covers all the organisms that were used in author’s bioassays, without any exception: from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, from unicellular to multicellular organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals.
4. Do sublethal concentrations of surfactants and detergents pose a serious hazard to the biosphere? The Answer given by the book: Yes, they do. A good example is the author’s discovery of sublethal effects of surfactants on bivalve mollusks, which lead to a decrease in filtration rate, which in turn leads to a decrease in water self-purification, which pose a serious hazard of a decrease in water quality.
5. Is it possible to offer any new efficient methods or new modifications of the current methods for bioassay of chemicals? The Answer given by the book: Yes, it is not only possible but implemented. The book contains new methods/modifications of methods which increase the efficiency of bioassay with seedlings of plants and activity of filter-feeders (Chapter 2 in the book).
6. In which countries was the book cited and proved to be useful? Answer: Belgium, Denmark, Austria, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, Argentina, Saudi Arabia, Peru, Slovakia, and others. See the text below.
7. In which countries did some libraries acquire this book? Answer: USA (Harvard University, MIT, Library of Congress, and others), Canada, UK (Oxford, Cambridge University, and others.), Netherlands, France, Germany, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and others: http://www.scribd.com/doc/77617474

** the sections of the material that follow:
Innovation / Discovery
Why it is useful
Who cited papers presenting various aspects of this innovation
Where this innovation / discovery was published

**

Innovation / Discovery:
New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents;
A series of new methods and facts on bioassay of surfactants, detergents, pesticides, using plant seedlings, freshwater and marine bivalve mollusks, leeches, algae, bacteria; [= Серия новых методик и фактов о биологическом и токсичном действии детергентов и поверхностно-активных веществ]
WHY IT IS USEFUL:
Previously, the hazards from detergents and synthetic surfactants were underestimated.
The new facts open our eyes to better see the new hazards to the environment and water quality.

New insight into hazards from low, sublethal concentrations of pollutants and mild, non-lethal effects of those low concentrations on organisms;

New priorities in monitoring, and environmental protection;
To provide better environmental protection;
To ensure water sustainability
WHO CITED PAPERS PRESENTING VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THIS INNOVATION:
FAQ (Frequently asked questions) on the book:. Biological Effects of Surfactants: http://www.scribd.com/doc/52630072/FAQ-1-bookBiol-Effe-Surfactants;
Frequently asked questions, part 2. [About the book:. Biological Effects of Surfactant: http://www.scribd.com/doc/46270956;
http://www.scribd.com/doc/52630298/FAQ2-Book-Bioeff-Surf-Part-2-Eng; Mutagenesis, Volume22, Issue 6, p. 363-370.
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and dimethyldioctadecyl-ammonium bromide (DDAB), two common quaternary ammonium compounds, cause genotoxic effects in mammalian and plant cells at environmentally relevant concentrations.
F. Ferk, M. Mišík1, C. Hoelzl, M. Uhl2, M. Fuerhacker3, B. Grillitsch4, W. Parzefall, A. Nersesyan, K. Mičieta1, T. Grummt5, V. Ehrlich and S. Knasmüller*;
– Author Affiliations:
Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Austria;
1Department of Botany, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia;
2Federal Environment Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria;
3University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria;
4University of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Vienna, Austria;
5German Environmental Protection Agency, Bad Elster, Germany;
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +43 1 427765142;
**
M.B. Yagci, S. Bolca, J.P.A. Heuts, W. Ming, G. de With. Self-stratifying antimicrobial polyurethane coatings. – Progress in Organic Coatings. 2011. In press; doi:10.1016/j.porgcoat.2011.04.021.
M.B. Yagci a, S. Bolca b, J.P.A. Heuts c, W. Ming a, G. de With a,
a Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands;
b Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, B-9000, Ghent, Belgium;
c Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands;

**
J. Saudi Chem. Soc., Vol. 12, No. 4; pp. 489-514 (2008); SURFACTANTS PART 1: OVERVIEW ON THEIR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Hamad A. Al-Lohedan* and Fawzia F. Al-Blewi Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia;
**
Nanosized Photocatalysts in Environmental Remediation.
Jess P. Wilcoxon, Billie L. Abrams; Published Online: 15 JUL 2010;
DOI: 10.1002/9783527628155.nanotech012;
Copyright © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Wilcoxon, J. P. and Abrams, B. L. 2010. Nanosized Photocatalysts in Environmental Remediation. Nanotechnology. 51–124.
Author Information:
1 University of Birmingham, Nanophysics Research Laboratory, Birmingham, United Kingdom;
2 Danish Technical University, Department of Physics Nano DTU Center for Integrated Nanoparticle Functionality (CINF), Kongens Lyngby, Denmark;
**
The Biologist (Lima, Peru) 2010, 8:43-53. ISSN 1816-0719. EFECTO DE UN DETERGENTE BIODEGRADABLE EN AGUA EN LA REPRODUCCIÓN DE DAPHNIA MAGNA [=EFFECT OF A BIODEGRADABLE DETERGENT IN WATER ON DAPHNIA MAGNA REPRODUCTION] Castiglioni, M.1,2 & Collins, P.1,2; 1 Escuela Superior de Sanidad- FBCB- UNL. Cuidad Universitaria Pje El Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe , Argentina. 2 Instituto Nacional de Limnología- CONICET-UNL. Cuidad Universitaria Pje El Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina. Correo electrónico: [email protected];
**
CITED OTHER RELEVANT PUBLICATIONS by the same author:
Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 27(2): 409-423. 2008;
doi: 10.1899/07-058.1;
http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1899/07-058.1;
Community and foodweb ecology of freshwater mussels;
Caryn C. Vaughn, S. Jerrine Nichols, Daniel E. Spooner.
And other publications;
WHERE THIS INNOVATION / DISCOVERY WAS PUBLISHED:

The book: S.A.Ostroumov. Biological Effects of Surfactants, Publisher: CRC Press, Taylor &Francis;
ISBN: 9780849325267; ISBN 10: 0849325269;
http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9780849325267

Which libraries and institutions worldwide have acquired this book?

Harvard, Oxford, Cambridge, MIT and other libraries worldwide which acquired the books by Dr. S. O.: Europe, North America, Asia, Australia, Africa: USA, Canada, France, Switzerland, Japan, China, Korea, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, United Kingdom, Finland, Poland, Serbia, Turkey, Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Singapore, South Africa: http://www.scribd.com/doc/77617474/;

On the book:
Understanding the role of aquatic biota in forming water quality, and the impact of pollution and chemical substances that enter aquatic ecosystems is crucial to the assessment, prevention, and remediation of damaged environments. The book “Biological Effects of Surfactants” SYNTHESIZES THE MOST IMPORTANT FINDINGS from hundreds of articles and the author’s current experiments. His articles were on the biological effects of synthetic surfactants and detergents on individual organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. This book offers a new perspective of the hazards of pollution.

The book DRAWS UPON NEW CONCEPTS IN AQUATIC ECOLOGY, hydrobiology, biogeochemical cycling, and the assimilative capacity of water. The analysis is made beyond the self-purification capabilities of bacteria and nutrient cycling. The book presents and examines a lot of new effects of anionic, non-ionic, and cationic surfactants as well as detergent mixtures on a wide range of organisms. The list of the organisms includes bacteria, cyanobacteria, flagellates, algae, higher plants, and invertebrates. The author is a distinguished member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. He establishes new quantitative characteristics of the effects and presents study results reflecting newly discovered phenomena. The author is proposing and substantiating new priorities and approaches for testing, assessing, and characterizing the biological activities and hazards of chemical substances. Moreover, he illustrates how the data obtained can be used to develop effective environmental remediation and protection measures to improve water quality.

The book ‘Biological Effects of Surfactants’ LAYS AN EXCELLENT FOUNDATION FOR SCIENTISTS TO EXPLORE HOW HAZARDOUS WASTES are absorbed in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The book determines what is required for remediation and restoring water quality in freshwater and marine water bodies and ecosystems. In addition, the book designs the best approach to counteract the toxic effects of manmade surfactants using biological methods, including phytoremediation (phytotechnology). The book is a useful contribution to water sustainability, to sustainable development.

In German, about the book: Biological Effects of Surfactants: http://www.scribd.com/doc/63191270/;

In French about the book : Ostroumov S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants; http://www.scribd.com/doc/63194509/;

In Japanese on the book ‘Biological Effects Of Surfactants’, – comments – aquatic ecology, limnology, bio oceanography, ecotoxicology: http://bit.ly/n1K4kF;

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

On the author: http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,