New environmental hazard: The hazard of a two-level synergism of synecological summation of anthropogenic effects

New environmental hazards were discovered, which is of importance to protection of environment.
Article titled:

The hazard of a two-level synergism of synecological summation of anthropogenic effects.

  • S A Ostroumov
    S. A.Ostroumov
(Lab of Physico- Chemistry of Biomembranes, Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Vorob’evy gory, Moscow, 119991 Russia).

Journal: Doklady Biological Sciences,  2001; 380:499-501.

 DOI 10.1023/A:1012348127085.
The paper presented new facts, new fundamental concepts, new terminology in science of ecology.
The rating of this article: excellent. See: rating at World Catalog. A favorable review was published at World Catalog: ;Discovery of a fundamentally new type of environmental hazards from chemical pollution. ;
The hazard of a two-level synergism of synecological summation of anthropogenic effects. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, Volume 380, Numbers 1-6, p. 499-501.
ISSN: 0012-4966 (print version); ISSN: 1608-3105 (electronic version); Editor of the peer-reviewed journal: President of Russian Academy of Sciences;

Full text oline free:;

Innovation in a nutshell: A new fundamental concept and new scientific terms, to develop terminology in environmental science, in ecology: Two-Level Synergism, Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects;
The author identified a new type of environmental hazard of anthropogenic impact (considering chemical pollution of water as an example). He proposed to term this new hazard “synecological summation” or “synergistic summation” of anthropogenic effects on organisms of two adjacent trophic levels. ** NEW FACTS: in the study reported in the paper, the following new type of environmental hazards was found. It was shown that even some relatively mild influences on organisms of two adjacent trophic levels may eventually produce a synergistic, pronounced and definitely undesirable effect which will lead to an abnormal increase in the abundance of organisms of one of the trophic levels. The concrete examples of that type of synergism were found when anthropogenic impacts affected the organisms of two adjacent trophic levels (an example: bivalves and algae). Some new  hazardous effects of an ecotoxicant, a synthetic detergent (exemplified by the trade mark Vesna) (1 mg/l) on the aquatic bivalve mollusks, oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were described. Also, some new effects of a detergent (exemplified by the trade mark IXI) (10 mg/l) on the marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), were found; also, new effects of the detergent (exemplified by the trade mark Tide-Lemon) (50 mg/l) on M. galloprovincialis were discovered. ** CONCLUSION: The hazard of simultaneous influence of environmental pollution (e.g., by detergents) on organisms of the two adjacent trophic levels may occur when the pollutant produces effects on algae and bivalves that are filter-feeders. It means that a new type of environmental hazards was discovered. [MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica, distributed by Springer Science+Business Media LLC.; ISSN 0012-4966 (Print) 1608-3105 (Online)];
DOI 10.1023/A:1012348127085;

tags for this article:
oysters, Crassostrea gigas, mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis,
water quality, water, theory, synthetic substances, synergism, suspension feeders, surfactants, summation, services, self-purification, quality, pollution, pollutants, plankton, pellets, new hazards, mussels, marine, mariculture, management, man-made impact, man-made effects, invertebrates, inhibitors, improving, water quality, hydrosphere, hazards, functioning, freshwater, filter-feeders, environmetal safety, environmental, toxicology, environmental chemistry, environment, protection, ecotoxicology, services, ecosystems, ecosystem, ecohazard, detergents, chemical, pollution, cationic surfactant, Black_Sea, bivalvia, bivalves, biosphere, biogeochemistry, biogeochemical, bioassays, benthos, assessment, aquatic, organisms, aquaculture, anthropogenic, impact,

Biodiversity protection is a necessary condition to maintain clean water, see the article titled: Biodiversity protection and quality of water: the role of feedbacks in ecosystems

Biodiversity protection is a necessary condition to maintain clean water. This is the main conclusion of the
article titled:
Biodiversity protection and quality of water: the role of feedbacks in ecosystems.;

DOI: 10.1023/A:1014465220673;
42 downloads by 26.01.2015. Ranking of this article increased recently (ranking on the basis of altmetrics score of attention online).
This paper is on the short prestigious, honorable list ‘Top papers, books on aquatic ecology, ecotoxicology’ at the largest global catalog, WorldCatalog [source:].
Innovative concepts that provide new arguments in biodiversity conservation, water ecosystem protection, protection of aquatic environment:
Ostroumov S. A. Biodiversity protection and quality of water: the role of feedbacks in ecosystems. – Doklady Biological Sciences. 2002. Volume 382, Numbers 1- 6, p. 18-21.
Full text: ;

The review (favorable) of this article was published at World Catalog; the review rated this article as excellent:
The text of the review in other languages:




Korean :

The paper presents some new ideas and new facts:

** NEW IDEAS: The article presents a new concept of how biodiversity helps towards better stability and water quality, in other words, how biodiversity is involved in the ecosystem services. The author made an innovative analysis of his experimental data which led to the following fundamental conclusion: to maintain water quality, it is vital to protect the functionally active biodiversity of water ecosystems. In other words, according to this article, the protection of functionally active, including filter-feeders, is a key to maintenance of water quality.
** NEW FACTS. Among new facts: the laundry detergent (exemplified by a common detergent IXI) 20 mg/L inhibited water filtration by bivalves, marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis; in another series of experiments, the laundry detergent (exemplified by the detergent Deni-Automat) 30 mg/L also inhibited the water filtration by another species of bivalve mollusks, namely, oyster Crassostrea gigas.
DOI 10.1023/A:1014465220673.; MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica distributed exclusively by Springer Science+Business Media LLC. ISSN 0012-4966 (Print) 1608-3105 (Online).;;


New insight into ecosystem services. Article titled: On the biotic self-purification of aquatic ecosystems: elements of the theory

A new insight into ecosystem services was provided in the article titled:

On the biotic self-purification of aquatic ecosystems: elements of the theory. Article.;

DOI 10.1023/B:DOBS.0000033278.12858.12.

One of key benefits from normal function of healthy aquatic ecosystems is  the provisioning of clean  water, in other words, maintaining proper water quality (which is a result of water self-purification in ecosystem).  Until the time of publishing this article, no consistent and multi-faceted theory of water self-purification had existed. This article is the first publication to formulate such a theory that  elucidates and integrates multiple roles of aquatic organisms involved, including not only microorganisms but also macroorganisms, e.g., higher plants and invertebrates. Both plankton and benthic organisms are involved and their roles were discovered and analyzed in this article.
A more detailed description of the content of this paper:
This article presents a  new theory of biotic (biological) maintaining the natural purification potential of aquatic ecosystems. The fundamental elements are formulated for a qualitative theory of the multifunctional (polyfunctional) role of the biota (the biological community of aquatic organisms) in improving water quality and doing water self-purification in aquatic ecosystems. The  theory covers the following:
the sources of energy for the mechanisms of water self-purification;
the main functional blocks of the system of self-purification;
the system of the main processes that are involved;
the analysis of the degree of participation of the main large taxa; the reliability of the mechanisms of water self-purification; regulation of the processes;
the response of the mechanisms of water self-purification towards the external influences (man-made impacts, pollution);
and some conclusions relevant to the practice of environment protection.
In support of the theory, the results are given of the author’s experiments which demonstrated the ability of some pollutants (surfactants, detergents, and some others) to inhibit the water filtration activity of aquatic invertebrate filter-feeders, namely, the bivalve mollusks, including mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus edulis), and oysters (Crassostrea gigas).
More information on this article:

Laboratory of Physico-Chemistry of Biomembranes, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorob’evy gory, Moscow, 119991 Russia.

Doklady Biological Sciences. 2004; 396:206-211.

Source: PubMed;;

This paper is on the short prestigious, honorable list ‘Top papers, books on aquatic ecology, ecotoxicology’ at the largest global catalog, WorldCatalog


This fundamental and innovative article was cited and commented favorably by scientists in many countries.

A Diploma (Academy of Water Sciences) – a certificate of high scientific quality – was awarded to the series of publications (on ecology, environmental science) including this article:;

The paper was bookmarked by members of ResearchGate. ;

This paper is on the short prestigious, honorable list ‘Top papers, books on aquatic ecology, ecotoxicology’ at the largest global catalog, WorldCatalog [source:].

This article was cited by scientists in Europe, N. America (U.S.A.), and Asia. Diploma (Academy of Water Sciences) – a certificate of high scientific quality – was awarded to the series of publications (on ecology, environmental science) including this article:;

The paper was bookmarked by members of ResearchGate.

DOI: 10.1023/B:DOBS.0000033278.12858.12;; ;

This paper has a double impact as it is in the journal that is being published in 2 languages.

The Russian version of this paper was published: ;

The reference to the Russian version: Doklady Akademii Nauk, V.396, No.1, 2004, p.136–141.

Attention attracted:  by 26st January 2015, this article was mentioned by  17 Facebook users; and a Google+ user. At ResearchGate: 143 downloads of this article,  6 bookmarks,  and 1007 views (by January 26, 2015);

It was mentioned at web-pages / links:

FAQ: Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems … – 5bio5 ;

On the biotic self-purification of aquatic ecosystems …; ;; ;


Groups interested in: On the Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems: Elements of the Theory.

key words:

theory, polyfunctional, multifunctional, role, biological, community, ecosystem service, ecosystem health, biota, improving, water quality, self-purification, aquatic ecosystems, sources of energy, mechanisms of water self-purification, functional blocks, reliability, man-made impacts, pollution, environment, protection, pollutants, surfactants, detergents, filtration activity, marine, filter-feeders, suspension feeders, bivalve, mollusks, mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus edulis, oysters, Crassostrea gigas, environmental safety, sustainable use, aquatic resources, sustainability, aquaculture, aqua-farming, protection of environment, top publications, pollution control, environmental safety, water, limnology, freshwater, marine, ecology, environmental toxicology, ecotoxicology, Moscow State University, hazard assessment, bioassays,

The Effect of Synthetic Surfactants on the Hydrobiological Mechanisms of Water Self-Purification

Article ranks 2nd among many papers.

The Effect of Synthetic Surfactants on the Hydrobiological Mechanisms of Water Self-Purification ;

DOI 10.1023/B:WARE.0000041919.77628.8d;;

Journal: Water Resources , Volume 31, Issue 5 , pp. 502-510 ;

Author: S. A. Ostroumov


The Effect of Synthetic Surfactants on the Hydrobiological Mechanisms of Water Self-Purification

The context below was calculated when this article was last mentioned on 8th January 2015;

Method of comparison: Compared to all articles in journal Water Resources:

So far Altmetric has tracked a number of articles from this journal. This article scored higher as 75% of them.

It Ranks 2nd;


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Key words:

water quality, filter-feeders, water, self-purification, bivalves, ecotoxicology, aquatic, ecosystems, ecotoxicants, pollutants, surfactants, detergents, new, discovery, hazards, protection of environment, ecology, environmental, toxicology,  Mytilus edulis, Mytilus gallprovincialis, Mytilus, Unio, phytoplankton, water filtration, marine, freshwater, mussels, oysters, suspension feeders, inhibition, bivalves, mollusks, toxicity, bioassay,

Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification.

Review article: Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002. 469: 117-129.

DOI 10.1023/A:1015559123646;

Most important online mentions. Abstract and content of the article. Citation of the article (selected examples).

Key links: ;;


Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying ……/200587396_Inhibitory_analysis_of_topdown_co;
by SA Ostroumov – ‎2002 – ‎Cited by 57 – ‎Related articles

Publication » Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification.

SCORING, RANKING – analysis of attention given this article online. Notification from independent experts, 08.01.2015:
Other articles of a similar age in journal Hydrobiologia:
We’re able to compare this article to 33 articles from the same journal and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This article has done very well, scoring higher than 90% of its contemporaries.
In the 90%ile;  Ranks 3rd.
Results of consideration of ALL articles of a similar age:
Older articles will score higher simply because they’ve had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this score to the 73,904 tracked articles that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any journal. This article has done well, scoring higher than 82% of its contemporaries.
In the 82%ile.
Information on impact, interest attracted:
20 readers on Mendeley, by January 2, 2015;
31 downloads from ResearchGate; by January 8, 2015;
345 views on ResearchGate by January 8, 2015;
168 views on Scribd, Jan 2, 2015 [];
79 views on Academia [];
cited by 58, by January 2, 2015; according to Google Scholar;
This paper is on the short prestigious, honorable list entitled ‘Top papers, books on aquatic ecology, ecotoxicology’ at the largest global catalog, WorldCatalog. [WorldCat itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries. It contains more than 300 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets] [source:].
Ostroumov S.A. Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002. 469: 117-129. ;
DOI 10.1023/A:1015559123646;
Full text online:; ;;;;
KEYWORDS: self-purification, filter-feeders, surfactants, detergents, benthic, bivalves, aquatic, ecosystems, eutrophication, algal, blooms, hazards, chemical pollution, water quality, phytoplankton, marine, freshwater, invertebrates, clearance rate, biological effects, xenobiotics, ecotoxicants, pollutants, sustainable use, aquatic resources, aquaculture, mariculture, ecosystem services, environmental science, ecotoxicology, pollution control, bioassay, mussels, oysters, man-made effects, anthropogenic, biodiversity, clearance rate, LAS, linear alkylbenzene sulphonate, NOEC, No observable effect consentration, QSAR, quantitative structure – activity relationship, SFG, Scope for Growth, SDS, sodium dodecyl sulphate, TDTMA, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, TX100, Triton X-100, sublethal effects, pellets, faeces, pseudofaeces, suspended matter, preventing, algal blooms, sponges, polychaetes, molluscs, echinoderms, larvae of insects, ascidians, alkylsulfates, nonionic surfactants, nonylphenols, bioassay, Cladocera, Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia dubia, anilazin, benomyl, bentazon, cyfluthrin, dimethoat, lindan, maneb, zineb, ziram, pesticides, inhibitory effects on feeding, mortality, EC50, LC50, endosulfan, diazinon, methyl parathion, lindan, dichlobenil, Unio tumidus, U. pictorum, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas
Top-down control is an important type of interspecies interactions in food webs. It is especially important for aquatic ecosystems. Phytoplankton grazers contribute to the top-down control of phytoplankton populations. The paper is focused on the role of benthic filter feeders in the control of plankton populations as a result of water filtering and the removal of cells of plankton from the water column. New data on the inhibitory effects of surfactants and detergents on benthic filter-feeders (Unio tumidus, U. pictorum, Mytilus galloprovincialis, M. edulis, and Crassostrea gigas) are presented and discussed. Importance and efficiency of that approach to the problems of eutrophication and water self-purification is pointed out. Chemical pollution may pose a threat to the natural top-down control of phytoplankton and water self-purification process. The protection of that natural top-down control is considered an important prerequisite for sustainable use of aquatic resources.
The paper was cited by international scientists, including:
Bryan W. Brooks, Timothy Riley, Ritchie Taylor. Water quality of effluent-dominated stream ecosystems: ecotoxicological, hydrological, and management considerations
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GL Wei, ZF Yang, BS Cui, B. Li, H. Chen, JH Bai, S.K. Dong [GuoLiang Wei, ZhiFeng Yang, BaoShan Cui, Bing Li, He Chen, JunHong Bai and ShiKui Dong] Impact of Dam Construction on Water Quality and Water Self-Purification Capacity of the Lancang River, China. – Water Resour Manage (2009) 23:1763–1780.
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ABBREVIATIONS: CR – clearance rate; LAS – linear alkylbenzene sulphonate; NOEC – No observable effect consentration; QSAR – quantitative structure – activity relationship; SFG – Scope for Growth; SDS – sodium dodecyl sulphate; TDTMA – tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide; TX100 – Triton X-100
ADDENDUM TO THE ABSTRACT (EXTENDED VERSION of the abstract, or a condensed text of the article):
By definition, the organisms of the two adjacent trophic levels interact with each other so that the organisms of the higher trophic level may produce some effect on the organisms of the lower trophic level. If the latter are not too abundant, the effects of the organisms of the higher level lead to limiting, decreasing or stabilizing the populations of the organisms of the lower trophic level. These effects might be considered a control or a partial control of the organisms of the lower trophic level. Many examples of interactions of that type were studied in various natural and experimental systems (Table 1). The significance of top-down control attributes additional importance to studies of the grazing activity of crustaceans (e.g., Sushchenya, 1975; Gutelmaher, 1986), rotifers (e.g., Monakov, 1998; Bul’on et al., 1999), protozoan plankton (e.g., Bul’on et al., 1999), and benthic invertebrates (e.g., Alimov, 1981; Donkin et al., 1989, 1991; Zaika, 1992; Ogilvie & Mitchell, 1995; Widdows et al., 1995a, Widdows et al., 1995b; Newell, 1999), and other invertebrates (Monakov, 1998).
In aquatic ecosystems, the problem of the control of the organisms of the lower trophic level (algae) is of outstanding importance because it is relevant to the problem of eutrophication. Also, control mechanisms are important in better understanding the problem of algal blooms, including the toxic algae blooms. To avoid over-simplification, we should realize that there are many factors that regulate the abundance of algal populations; top-down control is only one of them.
Many species of invertebrates of both plankton and benthos belong to the higher trophic level as compared with algae and cyanobacteria of phytoplankton. As for zooplankton species and their filter-feeding activity, an important body of information was presented and analyzed in (Sushchenya, 1975; Gutelmaher, 1986). Filtering activity of benthic species has also been studied (e.g., Alimov, 1981; Ostroumov et al., 1997, 1998).
In this paper we focus on some species of invertebrates of benthos, which are filter-feeders and in this capacity contribute to the top-down control of phytoplankton.
The diversity of benthic organisms that filter water and remove algal cell and other particulate matter is broad. Filter-feeders inhabit the bottom of both freshwater and marine ecosystems. To facilitate broader general conclusions, in this paper we will consider both freshwater and marine organisms. The range of filter-feeders includes sponges, polychaetes, molluscs, echinoderms, larvae of many insects, ascidians, and some other invertebrates.
There are many examples of massive scale water filtering by benthos (e.g., Table 2; see also: Alimov, 1981; Ostroumov & Fedorov, 1999). It was shown that in some man-made reservoirs the total volume of water is filtered by benthic bivalves 2-24 times annually (e.g., Konstantinov, 1979). In a shallow lake in New Zealand the total volume is filtered during a time period of less than 2 days (Ogilvie & Mitchell, 1995). Equally massive filtering activity was discovered for the benthic sponges in the coastal waters of Lake Baikal which stores 22, 995 km3 of superb clean water (for comparison, the amount of the annual world consumption of freshwater was 3, 240 km3, and the annual freshwater withdrawal in Europe was 359 km3, in North and Central America 697 km3; the data for year 1987) (World Resources 1995-1995).
As a result of water filtering, algal cells are removed from the water column. It is important that some filter-feeders (e.g., bivalves) remove more algae than they need for feeding purposes. Excessive amounts of algae biomass and other particulate matter are excreted in the form of pellets (to distinguish them from regular faeces they are called pseudofaeces) which are larger in size than the algal cells and therefore they settle to the bottom rapidly. The amount of pseudofaeces may exceed the amount of the assimilated food manyfold. As a result, the total activity of bivalve molluscs in removing algal biomass from the water column and in making water clearer is far beyond just the trophic needs of bivalves.
The total weight of organic matter that is removed from a water column and deposited as bottom sediments is measured as high as kilograms per m2 per year. E.g., in the ecosystem of the man-made reservoir Volgogradskoe, the amount of the formerly suspended matter that was removed by molluscs from the water column and finally sedimented was 8.3 kg m-2 annually (Kondratiev, 1976; cited in Konstantinov, 1979). For the entire reservoir that is located in the center of the largest European river, the amount of sedimented matter was as high as 29 million tons.
Man-made chemicals can produce strong inhibition of water filtering by benthic molluscs or impair the normal pattern of opening bivalves which is needed to maintain the efficient filtration of water. Some examples of those effects are given in Table 3. More examples could be found in literature (e.g., Stuijfzand, 1995; Ostroumov, 1998). The experiments were usually conducted using some phytoplankton species as the organism that is being removed from the water column during the filtration experiment. Thus, in experiments with bivalve Mytilus edulis, the algae Isochrysis galbana are often used (Donkin et al., 1997; Ostroumov et al., 1997; 1998). In our experiments with M. galloprovincialis (see below) we have observed a xenobiotic-induced decrease in grazing phytoplankton cells of Monochrysis lutheri and Dunaliella viridis. In our experiments with freshwater bivalves Unio tumidus and U. pictorum, we described some pollutant-induced inhibition of the removal of green algae Scenedesmus quadricauda and cyanobacteria Synechocystis.
The major part of our experiments were done in the laboratory. Under field conditions, it was described that in polluted habitats the biomass and vitality of bivalves declined (Zaika, 1992), which means that their contribution to water filtering is negatively affected. It was possible to develop an integrative parameter, Scope for Growth (SFG) which enables the scientist to estimate the total amount of energy available for the population of mussels for its growth and reproduction (after deduction of the amount of energy is lost during respiration etc.) (Widdows et al., 1995a, 1995b). It was shown that in terms of the entire populations, in polluted habitats the reduced filtration and reduced intake of energy from digested plankton (and seston as a whole) led to the fact that SFG was reduced.
We have initiated a systematic study of the effects of another class of aquatic pollutants, namely surfactants, on the water-filtering activity of bivalves and on the resulting removal of algal cells from the water column.
Among the various organic chemicals that are entering the natural environment in large amounts (Yablokov & Ostroumov, 1983, 1985, 1991), surfactants play a significant role (Ostroumov, 1986; 1990; 1991; 1994 a; 1994b; Marcomini et al., 1988; Quiroga et al., 1989; Granmo et al, 1991; Fernandez et al., 199; Lewis, 1991; Takada & Ishiwatari, 1991; Chalaux et al., 1992; Terzic & Ahel, 1993). It was shown that surfactants produce negative and sometimes also stimulatory effects on cyanobacteria (Waterbury & Ostroumov, 1994), green algae (e.g., Goryunova & Ostroumov, 1986), diatoms (Ostroumov & Maertz-Wente, 1991), plant seedlings (Ostroumov, 1986; 1990; 1991; Nagel et al., 1987; Maximov et al., 1988; Telitchenko & Ostroumov, 1990), shrimp (Drewa et al., 1988), Daphnia magna and D. pulex (e.g., Maki & Bishop, 1979; Martinez et al., 1989), freshwater amphipods (Pantani et al., 1995), rotifers (Kartasheva & Ostroumov, 1998), fish (e.g., Versteeg & Shorter, 1992; Malcolm et al., 1995). Some data on the effects of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) on Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk (Bressan et al., 1989; Marin et al., 1993), Mytilus edulis (Granmo, 1972) and some other marine benthic species (Marin et al., 1991) are available. However, almost nothing was known about the effects of alkylsulfates, nonionic surfactants (derivatives of nonylphenols), and some other surfactants as well as detergents on the filtering activity of Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, Crassostrea gigas, Unio tumidus, and U. pictorum.
The purpose of the experimental part of this work was to obtain data on the effects of some surfactants and surfactant-containing products including detergents, on the ability of bivalves (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, Unio tumidus, and U. pictorum) to filter water and remove algal or other cells from it.
Freshwater mussels Unio sp. were collected in the Moscow River. Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected at the Black Sea. Crassostrea gigas were grown at a mariculture farm (the Black Sea, Institute of Biology of Southern Seas NANU). M. edulis were collected at the Exmouth estuary and kept in tanks with aeration , water flow and periodic automatic imitation of low tide (water was removed out of tanks for 3 h every day) (Dr. Donkin’s participation and help in the work with M. edulis is acknowledged).
The temperature in experiments with M. galloprovincialis and C. gigas was mostly 22-27 C, in the experiments with Unio sp. 18-20 C. The cell removal and the cell density during the filtration by molluscs was measured using Hitachi 200-20 spectrophotometer (experiments with Unio sp.) and SF-26 (LOMO) spectrophotometer (experiments with M. galloprovincialis and C. gigas). In experiments with M. edulis (temperature 16 C), the number of cells per unit of volume was measured using the Coulter counter ( Coulter Electronics, model Industrial D). When a sample of filtered water without adding algae was used, the Coulter count was usually below 200.
The clearance rate (CR) was calculated according to Widdows & Salkeld (1993) using the following equation:
CR (l h-1) = (Volume of water e.g. 2 l) x (loge C1 — logeC2)/time interval in h
where C1 and C2 are cell concentrations at the beginning and end of each time increment (e.g. 0.5 h).
Statistical analysis was performed using EXCEL software. For linear regression analysis, an option was used which gives an opportunity to fix the intercept at a predetermined value.
Several chemicals were used. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (molecular mass 288.38) was purchased from Fluka. The purity was > 99% (assayed by GC, analysis number 332533/1 395). Triton X-100 (TX100) (x = 9-10 ethoxy units, H2O < 1 %, residue on ignition, 0.2%, analysis number 43306/1 795) was purchased also from Fluka. Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TDTMA, molecular mass 336.4) was purchased from Sigma (St.Louis, Missouri, 63178 USA; lot 55H1322). Detergents used were available commercially.
Results of the experimentation were as following.
Freshwater bivalves, Unio tumidus and U. pictorum removed planktonic cells from water. The ability to do so was inhibited by surfactants of several types (Table 4), including TDTMA, and TX100 .
A marine species, M. galloprovincialis, was also efficient in removing from water cells of phytoplankton and unicellular organisms in general. Several surfactants as well as detergents which contain surfactants inhibited this ability of M. galloprovincialis (Table 4). The chemicals tested included surfactants TDTMA, SDS, and several detergents, such as Tide-Lemon, Lotos-Extra, Losk-Universal.
In experiments with M. edulis, after one hour of filtering, in the control set (clean water) the number of algal cells per unit of volume decreased to almost 5.6% of the initial level, which is a good example of how efficiently bivalves can control planktonic populations (Table 5). This is in accord with the large amount of data on the significant filtration rates of bivalves (Alimov, 1981; Monakov, 1998) and their impact on ecosystems (Zaika, 1992). In the important series of measurements, in the control beakers (filtration of unpolluted water) the number of algal cells decreased by a factor of 15.98, while in the beakers with SDS (1 mg l–1) the number of cells decreased by a factor of 7.93. Thus, the algal cell density in control was half that in the system at the initial concentration of 1 mg l–1. The difference increased by the end of the experiment.
When the initial concentration of SDS was 2 mg l–1, a substantial difference from the control set was observed after the first half-hour period (Table 6). After 65 min of filtering, the algal cell density in the control set was almost 1/3 that contained in the system with SDS.
Further increase of the initial concentration of SDS up to 4 mg l–1 caused a dramatic 3-times increase of the cell density over that in the control set after only 35 min of filtering. In 65-min of filtering, the difference was 6-fold, and following 95-min filtering – over 14-fold.
At the initial concentration of SDS 5 mg l–1, the difference between systems with and without SDS was over 16-fold after 125 min of filtering.
It was possible to calculate the clearance rate (CR), using a standard formula widely accepted in the literature (Donkin et al. 1989; 1991; Widdows & Salkeld, 1993).
The summary of the inhibitory effects shows, with a few exceptions, two general trends:
1) an increase in the initial concentration of SDS in the range of 0.5 to 5 mg l–1 gave rise to an the increase in the inhibitory effect on CR (Table 7);
2) at any given concentration of SDS, the highest effect took place during the first 30-min period, with some decrease in the inhibitory effect by the end of the experiment.
The latter trend, however, was not paralleled by a mitigation of the effect on the residual algal cell density in the water. When the cell density was considered, the difference from the control was maximal by the end of the experiment.
Using another chemical, a non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100, we obtained similar data with EC50 close to that of SDS (Table 8). At a concentration of 4 mg l–1, the inhibition of the clearance rate during the time period of 30 min after the beginning of the experiment was almost 10-fold, and during the later period of time, the inhibition was about 5-fold.
The data obtained in our study showed that the filtering activity of mussels demonstrated a more sensitive response than some other biotests we had used in our experiments in bioassaying SDS, including green algae (Goryunova & Ostroumov, 1986) and plant seedlings (Nagel et al., 1987). The filtering activity of mussels was also more sensitive to SDS than some of the traditional lethal biotests with aquatic invertebrates and fish which had been applied for studies of LAS and alkyl sulfates (Sivak et al., 1982; Ostroumov, 1991).
It is noteworthy that the inhibitory effect of SDS on CR was developed within a rather narrow range of SDS concentrations (1 to 5 mg l–1). That could be in accord with a hypothesis that the decrease in CR is at least in part the result of a behavioural response of mussels.
Our data on effects of SDS are in good agreement with the results obtained by other authors who studied effects of another anionic surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) on filtering rate. It was shown that in experiments with exposure for 48 h and 96 h the filtration rate of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was reduced when concentration of dissolved LAS was higher than 1.5 mg l–1 (Bressan et al., 1989). In our experiments the biotest was slightly more sensitive as we exposed the animals to the surfactant for 1.5 h prior to beginning measurements and observed some inhibition at the initial concentration of 1 mg l–1.
Bressan et al. (1989) studied also effects of LAS on the growth of mussels and on mortality and spermatozoids of freshwater bivalve molluscs. They observed some decrease in the increment of length of the major axis of the shell of mussels at concentrations of LAS as low as 0.25 and 0.5 mg l–1, but the effect required up to 70 days to be observed. No significant effects were found within 30 days of their experiments. The length of time that was necessary to reveal the effect was a limitation of the technique, however it was impressive to observe almost a 2-fold decrease in growth when the chronic experiment with a relatively low level of LAS (0.25 mg l–1 ) lasted for 160 days and more.
In a parallel experiment the same authors observed a 30% increase in the respiration of LAS-treated (220 days, 0.25 mg l–1 ) young mussels (Bressan et al., 1989). Unfortunately, they did not specify what they called young mussels.
Some decrease in filtering rate was observed in another set of experiments when the concentration of LAS was 0.25 mg l–1 , but the duration of the surfactant treatment was much longer (220 days) than in our experiment, and the size of mussels was again not specified (Bressan et al., 1989). Also, they have shown that, at a concentration of 1 mg l–1, LAS inhibited the filtration rate after 7 days of exposure. It seems important that in our experiments we observed effects after only 1.5 hours of exposure to the anionic surfactant.
The LC50 (48 h) was about 40 mg l–1 and LC50 (96 h) was about 1.7 mg l–1 (Bressan et al., 1989), which was much lower than in the case of freshwater bivalves Anodonta cygnea and Unio elongatulus. For the latter two species, LC50 (96 h) was about 200 mg l–1 (Bressan et al, 1989). The mobility of spermatozoa of A. cygnea was almost completely inhibited at a concentration of LAS equal to 20 mg l–1.
Measurements of CR were used to quantify the toxic effects of chemicals and to study QSAR (Donkin & Widdows, 1990) for various chemicals, including alkanes and phenyl alkanes (Donkin et al., 1991) as well as such aromatics as toluene, naphthalene, n-propylbenzene, 1-chloronaphthalene, biphenyl etc. (Donkin et al., 1989). Two xenobiotics, including an organotin compound, inhibited the fitration rate by Dressena polymorpha and Crenomytilus grayanus (Mitin, 1984).
The filtering activity of not only bivalves, but also of other filter-feeders is vulnerable to the inhibition by surfactants. In experiments with rotifers Brachionus angularis Gosse, we have shown that TDTMA inhibited their filtration rate and the removal of cells of Chlorella sp. from the water (Kartasheva & Ostroumov, 1998). At a TDTMA concentration of 0.5 mg l–1, the average efficiency of filtration was 58.5% of that in control.
However important these kinds of studies of CR are, it is also important to consider the general consequences of a decrease in the CR for the ecosystem.
The role of the filtering activity of mussels is connected with their high population densities. It was estimated that at Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, mussels represented about 77% (11 kg m -2) of the total community dry weight (Nixon et al., 1971), and numbers of the same order of magnitude were reported for other locations (Seed & Suchanek, 1992). Taking into account that, in our experiments, one mussel with a total wet weight about 8.5 g filtered over 1 L of water per hour, it is easy to estimate that, at high abundancy, a mussel community may filter over 100 L water per hour per 1 m2 of the sea bottom.
A comparison of the tables for residual cell densities and CR for specific concentrations of surfactants shows that even a small decrease in CR produces a large difference in the residual cell density. The latter parameter may be considered as a model for any kind of particles which are being removed from the seawater by mussel filtering. In this way we may predict a huge decline in the natural ability of benthic communities to purify natural water when the water is polluted by surfactants as well as by other chemicals reducing the CR.
Changes (inhibition) of the filtering activity of bivalves might have many consequences in changing many parameters and processes in ecosystems, which were considered in more detail in (Ostroumov et al., 1997; 1998; Ostroumov, 1998).
Those considerations show that the inhibition of CR has consequences not limited by the prosperity of the mussel population, but that it is important for the state of the marine and estuarine ecosystems in much broader terms. Prospects of chemical-induced inhibition of water filtration by bivalves poses some ecological hazards in view of the role of bivalves in eutrophication control. The latter was studied in the case of the ecosystem of Chesapeake Bay (the Atlantic coast of the U.S.A.) (Newell et al., 1999).
Analysis of the specific LC50 for Cladocera and various species of algae shows that in case of many pollutants Cladocera are more sensitive than algae. According to the data disseminated at the recent workshop in Netherlands (9-12 December 1999, Den Helder, TNO; participants of the research project: M. Scholten, R. Jak, B. Clement, E. Foekema, P.Hernandez, K.Kaag, H. van Dokkum, M. Smit), in the case of the following pesticides, species of Cladocera (mainly Daphnia magna, D. pulex, Ceriodaphnia dubia) are more sensitive: anilazin, benomyl, bentazon, cyfluthrin, dimethoat, lindan, maneb, zineb, and ziram. In case of several pesticides, it was directly shown that the inhibitory effects on feeding were observed at lower concentrations, than the concentrations which induced mortality. EC50 (effects on feeding within 4-24 h) were lower than LC50 (24-48 h) for endosulfan, diazinon, methyl parathion, lindan, and dichlobenil (according to the data distributed at the same workshop). In case of atrazine, a concentration of 1.6 mg l–1 within 10 min produced 50% reduction in feeding, which shows again that feeding activity is inhibited at concentrations lower than those inducing mortality: LC50 (48 h) was 9.88 mg l–1.
Also, NOEC (No observable effect concentration) was the basis for comparing sensitivities of Cladocera and various species of algae to pesticides. In case of the following chemicals a higher sensitivity of Cladocera was found: azinfos-methyl, cyromazin, diazinon, dimethoat, endosulfan, fenpropathrin, malathion, mecoprop, propoxur, trifluralin, and some other pesticides.
All these data as well as the new evidence in the experiments conducted at TNO during the project led by Dr. M. Scholten (see Table 1) are in accord with the concept that pollutants may impair top-down control of algae. This conclusion is analogous to the conclusion made by us on the basis of our data for benthic filter-feeders.
Some benthic organisms, including spongi, polychets, bivalves, echinoderms, larvae of insects, ascidia and some others proved to be efficient organisms in filtering water and thereby in reducing the amount of particulate matter suspended in the water. Benthic filter-feeders remove from the surrounding water various suspended particles including algal cells. By doing so, they contribute to natural mechanisms that keep algal populations under some control. That type of top-down control under some circumstances might become especially important. The problem of algal blooms in the context of eutrophication is increasing attention to all mechanisms of control of algal populations including the control by virtue of water filtering by benthic filter-feeders, including bivalves. Some pollutants were shown to be efficient inhibitors that decrease water filtering and resulting grazing phytoplankton. Those chemicals produced a decrease in removal of algae from water column by bivalves.
The author initiated systematic studies of effects of surfactants and detergents on filtering activity and removal of algae by freshwater and marine bivalves. Marine and freeshwater bivalves Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and Unio sp. are efficient in removing unicellular organisms from water in result of their filtration activity. They are capable of drastically reducing the amount of cells of phytoplankton in water. This is an important mechanism contributing to natural control of algal populations in ecosystems. This regulatory mechanism is vulnerable to aquatic pollutants as exemplified by surfactants and detergents. New data are obtained and presented in this paper on how surfactants (anionic, non-ionic, and cationic ones) and surfactant-containing detergents inhibit the ability of marine and freshwater bivalves to remove cells of algae and cyanobacteria from water. On the basis of our new data, the final conclusion is that the new evidence support the views proposed in (Ostroumov, 1998; 1999; 2000c; 2000e) about the vulnerability of the filtration activity of invertebrates (both planktonic and benthic animals) to some pollutants, including surfactants. Our data and general conclusion are in accord with the idea that pollutants can induce reduction in grazing efficiency of benthic and planktonic invertebrates.
We consider the studies of inhibitory effects of chemicals on fiter-feeders as an effective approach to elucidating the details of filter-feeding and associated removal of phytoplankton from the water column. The mechanisms and rates of plankton removal are of utmost importance for controlling levels of plankton which are the key parameters in processes of eutrophication and algal blooms.
Water filtering activity of invertebrates is part of water self-purification in ecosystems. The self-purification of water is one of preconditions for the sustainable use of water resources. Therefore, the vulnerability of filter-feeders to aquatic pollutants (including surfactants and detergents) leads to a potential threat to the sustainable use of aquatic resources in situations when the ability of ecosystems to purify water is inhibited by pollutants.
In sum, on the basis of the data presented here and in some of our publications (Ostroumov, 1998; 1999; 2000a; Ostroumov et al., 1997, 1998; Ostroumov & Fedorov, 1999), the following inferences are to be made:
1. Surfactants inhibit the filtering ability of marine and freshwater bivalves with a drastic effect on the amount of particulate material (modelled here by algal cells) left in the water.
2. When considering the environmental importance of surfactants and detergents (and of a broader range of xenobiotics and pollutants as well), the ramifications relevant to disturbance of the natural ability of the ecosystem to control phytoplankton populations should be taken into account.
3. Our new data are in accordance with the opinion (Ostroumov, 1990; 1991; 2000b; 2000c; 2000d; Telitchenko & Ostroumov, 1990; Yablokov & Ostroumov, 1991) that surfactants, if being discharged into the environment at substancial rates, might, under some circumstances and in some ecosystems, become more significant as environmental pollutants than it was thought before.
4. We make the prediction that many new examples are to be found of pollutants (both organic and inorganic) which inhibit filtration rate of filter-feeders (not only bivalves, but also other benthic and plankton organisms) and by doing so reduce the ability of invertebrates to control unicellular plankton populations. We predict that new examples are to be found of pollutants which inhibit the ability of invertebrates to control eutrophication.
5. Sustainable use of resources of aquatic ecosystems requires as an important pre-condition the efficient functioning of the ecosystems towards self-regulating and water self-purification. This pre-requisite includes normal functioning of top-down control exercised by the organisms at the higher levels of the trophic chains of ecosystems.
6. Studies of inhibitory effects of chemicals on the top-level organisms (e.g., grazers of plankton, including benthic filter-feeders) are a useful approach in obtaining information on the top-down control in trophic chains.
Table 1. Top-down control in various natural and experimental systems (examples).
Table 2. Water-filtering activity of benthic organisms in some ecosystems (examples).
Table 3. Xenobiotics and contaminants that were shown to inhibit water-filtering activity of bivalves.
Table 4. New data on the inhibitory effect of surfactants and products that contain surfactants on the filtration efficiency of bivalve molluscs.
Table 5. Decrease in Isochrysis galbana cell density (per 0.5 ml) during filtering by Mytilus edulis in clean water (control beakers, A) and at 1 mg l–1 SDS (experimental beakers, B).
Table 6. Effect of SDS (2 mg l–1) on the efficiency of water filtering measured as the number of cells of Isochrysis galbana (per 0.5 mL) in the water after the 30-min period of filtering by Mytilus edulis.
Table 7. Inhibition (%) of the clearance rate (CR) of Isochrysis galbana during filtering by Mytilus edulis at various concentrations of SDS (after Ostroumov et al., 1998, with some changes).
Table 8. Effect of Triton X-100 on the clearance rate during filtering algae Isochrysis galbana by mussels Mytilus edulis (after Ostroumov et al., 1998, with some changes).
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The paper was cited and its conclusions were approved (selected examples):

The paper [Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal …SA Ostroumov – Hydrobiologia, 2002] was cited by:
Water Quality of Effluent-dominated Ecosystems: Ecotoxicological, Hydrological, and Management Considerations. – Hydrobiologia;
[Springer Netherlands];
ISSN 0018-8158 (Print) 1573-5117 (Online);
Volume 556, Number 1, 2006 (February).
DOI 10.1007/s10750-004-0189-7;
p. 365-379;
Bryan W. Brooks 1 , Timothy M. Riley 2 and Ritchie D. Taylor 3
(1) Department of Environmental Studies, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, One Bear Place # 97266, Waco, Texas 76798, USA;
(2) Barton Springs / Edwards Aquifer Conservation District, 1124 Regal Row, Austin, Texas 78748, USA;
(3) Department of Public Health, Centre for Water Resource Studies, Western Kentucky University, 1 Big Red Way, EST 437, Bowling Green, Kentucky 42101, USA;
– – – ——————–
Medit. Mar. Sci., 8/2, 2007, 19-32;
Mediterranean Marine Science;
Volume 8/2, 2007, 19-32;
Identification of the self-purification stretches of the Pinios River, Central Greece;
1Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Faculty of Sciences,
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece;
2Institute of Inland Waters, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research,
46.7 km Athinon – Souniou Av., 190 13, P.O. Box 712, Anavissos, Hellas;
– – – – –
Impact of Dam Construction on Water Quality and Water Self-Purification Capacity of the Lancang River, China. – Water Resources Management;
[Springer Netherlands],
ISSN 0920-4741 (Print) 1573-1650 (Online),
Volume 23, Number 9, 2009 (July).
DOI 10.1007/s11269-008-9351-8;
pp. 1763-1780;
GuoLiang Wei 1, 2, ZhiFeng Yang 1, BaoShan Cui 1 Contact Information, Bing Li 2, He Chen 1, JunHong Bai 1 and ShiKui Dong 1
(1) State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, P. R. China;
(2) Nuclear and Radiation Safety Centre, State Environmental Protection Administration, Beijing, 100088, P. R. China
– – – —————————————-
Assessment of ecosystem health of tropical shallow waterbodies in eastern India using turbulence model;
Authors: N. R. Samal a; A. Mazumdar b; K. D. Joumlhnk c; F. Peeters d
Affiliations: a Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, Durgapur, West Bengal, India;
b School of Water Resources Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India;
c Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Neuglobsow, Germany;
d Limnologisches Institut, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany;
DOI: 10.1080/14634980902908589;
Published in: journal Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, Volume 12, Issue 2, April 2009, pages 215 – 225
– – – – ——-
Lake and Reservoir Management
Bhatti, Zafar
Water Environment Research [Water Environ. Res.]. Vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 2106-2154. Oct 2004.
– – ———————————–

Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders.

Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders.
DOI 10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1;;
Article in: Hydrobiologia. 2005. Vol. 542, No. 1. P. 275 – 286.

Paper, water quality, aquatic ecosystem, freshwater, marine, filter-feeders, bivalves, rotifers, filtration rate, clearance rate, surfactants, detergents, ecological taxation, ecological repair, chemical pollution, pollutants, tetradecyltrymethylammonium bromide, heavy metalsAbstract, features.

Article reference:

Ostroumov S.A. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. – Hydrobiologia. 2005. Vol. 542, No. 1. P. 275 – 286.


New concepts and terminology were introduced in the paper: ecological tax; ecological repair of water quality;

a review of the ecological role of filter-feeders, suspension feeders in water (both  freshwater and marine) ecosystems, a first paper to formulate a short  list of the most vital roles and functions as ecosystem engineers;

unique summary of quantitative data on filtration activity of invertebrates;

detailed, fresh-angle analysis of how filter-feeders contribute to water quality improvement and water self-purification;

a deeper understanding of ecosystem services as related to filter-feeders;

  • DOI: 10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1
  • Indexed: Web of Science. 
  •  New concepts and terminology were introduced in the paper: ecological tax; ecological repair of water quality. Opinion paper. Also, a review paper. 
  •  ISSN 0018-8158 (Print) 1573-5117 (Online).
  • Full text see: ;
  • ABSTRACT. The article gave a fresh review and innovative analysis of the vital role of filter-feeders in functioning and maintenance of stability of aquatic ecosystems (both freshwater and marine ones). The paper includes the following tables which summarize many relevant facts and innovative ideas. 
  • Tables: Table 1. Examples of the impact of filter-feeders on the water column: clearance time. Table 2. Examples of diversity of taxa of benthic organisms involved in removing seston from water, and filtration rates. Table 3. Effect of the increase in concentration of algae on the filtration rate and the amount consumed by rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus. Table 4. The ratio F:P in some groups of organisms (examples of what the author named “ecological taxation”, the new concept and term coined by the author). Table 5. The ratio F: (P+R) in some filter feeders. Table 6. Results of the ecological tax: biosediment formation in 6 ecosystems. Table 7. Contribution of various aquatic organisms to oxidation of organic matter in the ecosystem of the Sea of Okhotsk. Table 8. Some chemicals that inhibit the filtering activity of the filter-feeders (new data of the author). Table 9. Some features of water-filtering biomachinery: 6 fundamental principles. Table 10. The level-block approach to the analysis of ecological hazards of anthropogenic effects on the biota (the new conceptualization proposed by the author). 
  • Some fundamental principles that characterize the pivotal roles of the biodiversity of filter-feeders in ecosystems. Among those roles are: (1) the role of ecological repair (a new concept and term proposed by the author) of water quality, (2) the role of contributing to reliability and stability of the functioning of the ecosystem, (3) the role of contributing to creation of habitat heterogeneity, (4) the role of contributing to acceleration of migration of chemical elements. It is an important feature of the biomachinery of filter-feeders that it removes from water various suspended particles of a very broad range of sizes. Another important principle is that the amount of the organic matter filtered out of water is larger than the amount assimilated so that a significant part of the removed material serves no useful function to the organism of the filter-feeder, but serves a beneficial function to some other species and to the ecosystem as a whole. The new experiments by the author additionally demonstrated a vulnerability of the filtration activity of filter feeders (e.g. bivalves and rotifers) to some chemical pollutants and xenobiotics (e.g., synthetic surfactants exemplified by tetradecyltrymethylammonium bromide, and also heavy metals and some others). The inhibition of the filtration activity of filter-feeders may lead to the situation previously described as that of an ecological hazard of the second type. 
  • KEY WORDSwater quality, aquatic, ecosystem, freshwater, marine, filter-feeders, bivalves, rotifers, filtration rate, clearance rate, surfactants, detergents, ecological taxation, ecological repair, chemical pollution, pollutants, tetradecyltrymethylammonium bromide, heavy metals, mussels, oysters, mollusks, suspension feeders, self-purification, environmental, toxicology, ecotoxicology, ecology
  • .Full name of the author: in English: Sergei Andreevich Ostroumov; Sergei A. Ostroumov; in Russian: Сергей Андреевич Остроумов; С.А.Остроумов;
  •  CITATION of this article:
  • Innovation in ecology (filter-feeders): cited in U.S.A., U.K., Italy, Netherlands, Australia, Kuwait.; A paper on aquatic ecology (innovative analysis of the roles of filter-feeders in ecosystems) was well-cited in international literature, including countries as diverse as U.S.A., Australia, Kuwait, U.K. and some others. Reference to the paper: Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders.- Hydrobiologia. 2005. Vol. 542, No. 1. P. 275 – 286; DOI: 10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1; DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-4111-X_26; 
  • Innovation in ecology (filter-feeders): cited in U.S.A., U.K., Italy, Netherlands, Australia, Kuwait;
  • Examples of the papers that cited this article, selected
  • U.S.A.: Douglas H. Erwin, and Sarah Tweedt . Ecological drivers of the Ediacaran-Cambrian diversification of Metazoa. — Evolutionary Ecology. 2011 [Abstract: Organismal modifications to their physical and chemical environment play a significant role in structuring many modern ecosystems, …] DOI: 10.1007/s10682-011-9505-7;; published online 13 July 2011;
  •  U.S.A.: Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 27(2): 409-423. 2008; doi: 10.1899/07-058.1;; Community and foodweb ecology of freshwater mussels; Caryn C. Vaughn, S. Jerrine Nichols, Daniel E. Spooner. 
  • ITALY: Margherita Licciano, Antonio Terlizzi, Adriana Giangrande, Rosa Anna Cavallo, Loredana Stabili. Filter-feeder macroinvertebrates as key players in culturable bacteria biodiversity control: a case of study with Sabella spallanzanii (Polychaeta: Sabellidae).- Marine Environmental Research, 64, 4 (2007) 504. [1 Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali (DiSTeBA), Via Prov. Lecce- Monteroni, 73100-Lecce, Italy; 2 Istituto per l’Ambiente Marino Costiero – Sezione di Taranto – CNR, Via Roma 3, 74100-Taranto, Italy];
  • ITALY: New Biotechnology, Volume 29, Issue 3, 15 February 2012, Pages 443–450; doi: 10.1016/j.nbt.2011.11.003; The lipidic extract of the seaweed Gracilariopsis longissima (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales): a potential resource for biotechnological purposes? L. Stabili a, b, M.I. Acquaviva a, F. Biandolino a, R.A. Cavallo a, S.A. De Pascali b, F.P. Fanizzi b, M. Narracci a, A. Petrocelli a, E. Cecere a; a Institute for Coastal Marine Environment (IAMC)–CNR, U.O.S. Taranto, Talassografico “A. Cerruti”, Via Roma 3 – 74100 Taranto, Italy; b Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies (Di.S.Te.B.A.), Università del Salento, via Prov.le Lecce Monteroni – 73100 Lecce, Italy; 
  • NETHERLANDS: M. Harty. Christmas tree worms (Spirobranchus giganteus) as a potential bioindicator species of sedimentation stress in coral reef environments of Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean – Physis, 2011, vol.9, p.20-30. The full text see:; Netherlands 
  • AUSTRALIA: Dafforn K.A., Glasby T.M., Johnston E.L. (2012) Comparing the Invasibility of Experimental “Reefs” with Field Observations of Natural Reefs and Artificial Structures. PLoS ONE 7(5): e38124. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038124; ** Affiliation: Katherine A. Dafforn 1*, Tim M. Glasby 2, Emma L. Johnston 1; 1 Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 2 New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Port Stephens Fisheries Institute, Nelson Bay, New South Wales, Australia; 
  • UNITED KINGDOM, KUWAIT: Mesopot. J. Mar. Sci., 2010, 25 (1): 11 – 30. The effect of salinity and temperature on the uptake of cadmium and zinc by the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis with some notes on their survival. M. Ali¹ and A. Taylor²*; ¹Aquaculture, Fisheries and Marine Environment Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 1638, Salmiya 22017, Kuwait; ²Faculty of Biomedical & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom; *e-mail:;
  • U.S.A.:  Yates, Jennifer Maria, “Influences of a Cladophora Bloom on the Diets of Amblema Plicata and Elliptio Dilatata in the Upper Green River, Kentucky” (2012). Masters Theses & Specialist Projects. Paper 1221. 
  • U.S.A. Citation in the text of Thesis written at Western Kentucky University, U.S.A.: A fragment of the text: Mussels assimilate only part of the organic matter they consume (Ostroumov, 2005). The consumed materials that aren’t assimilated, however, are not lost from the food web to respiration or burial. Instead, they are deposited on surface sediments in the form of feces or pseudofeces (Strayer et al., 1999). Thus, part of what mussels ingest is not of direct use to them but can reenter the ecosystem (Ostroumov, 2005). Both 5 suspension feeders and deposit feeders benefit from this cycling of matter (Howard & Cuffey, 2006). The excretory waste products of mussels, or “biodeposits”, are..

Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification

Article: Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification.

DOI 10.1023/A:1015559123646;;

Links to full text; citation;


Reference to the paper:

Ostroumov S.A. Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. Hydrobiologia. 2002. vol. 469, pages 117-129.

Citation of this paper:; Cited the paper:  Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication,… Hydrobiologia.

Key words: 

water quality, filter-feeders, water, self-purification, bivalves, ecotoxicology, aquatic, ecosystems, ecotoxicants, pollutants, surfactants, detergents, new, discovery, hazards, protection of environment, ecology, environmental, toxicology, Mytilus,  phytoplankton, water filtration, marine, freshwater, mussels, oysters, suspension feeders,

algal blooms, aquatic ecosystems, eutrophication, filter-feeders, Inhibitory analysis,  new, self-purification, studying, top-down control,  Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus edulis,  Unio tumidus, Unio pictorum,


Full text online free:

the web site with the full text of this paper, and Addendum with relevant recent publications, free:

Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002. vol. 469, pages 117-129;


Top-down control is an important type of interspecies interactions in food webs. It is especially important for aquatic ecosystems. Phytoplankton grazers contribute to the top-down control of phytoplankton populations. The paper is focused on the role of benthic filter-feeders in the control of plankton populations as a result of water filtering and the removal of cells of plankton from the water column. New data on the inhibitory effects of surfactants and detergents on benthic filter-feeders (freshwater mussels Unio tumidus, U. pictorum, marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, M. edulis, and oysters Crassostrea gigas) are presented and discussed. Importance and efficiency of that approach to the problems of eutrophication and water self-purification is pointed out. Chemical pollution may pose a threat to the natural top-down control of phytoplankton and water self-purification process. The latter is considered an important prerequisite for sustainable use of aquatic resources.


Examples of citation of this paper:


This file, with small changes, is also here:

FAQ on the paper: S. A. Ostroumov. On the Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems: Elements of the Theory.

FAQ: Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems.

Previous draft of this file:

FAQ on the paper:

S. A. Ostroumov. On the Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems: Elements of the Theory. – Doklady Biological Sciences. 2004. v.396,  pp.206-211.;  full text is online free:

self-purification, aquatic, ecosystems, conceptualization, new, ecology, environmental science, biology, ecotoxicology,  biological, ecotechnology, pollution control, bioassay, hazard assessment, xenobiotics, surfactants, detergents,  pollutants, bivalves, mussels, Mytilus, edulis,  galloprovincialis, oysters, Crassostrea, gigas, filtering, water, quality, ecosystem, safety, sustainability;



Answer: Self-purification is the complex process, or, more precisely, a set of natural processes in aquatic ecosystems, which lead to improving or maintaining water quality. Another term with a similar, but not completely the same meaning: assimilative capacity.



Answer: This is a high rank journal that is indexed by PubMed and Web of Science.

ABSTRACTED/INDEXED IN: PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, EMBASE, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), Google Scholar, CAB International, Academic OneFile, AGRICOLA, CAB Abstracts, ChemWeb, EMBiology, Gale, Global Health, INIS Atomindex, OCLC, SCImago, Summon by Serial Solutions;

Doklady Biological Sciences is a bimonthly journal presenting English translations of current Russian research in the anatomy, cytology, ecology, embryology, endocrinology, evolutionary morphology, experimental morphology, genetic, histology, hydrobiology, immunology, microbiology, morphology, parasitology, physiology, virology, and zoology sections of the Doklady Akademii Nauk (Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences). The Proceedings appear 36 times per year; articles from the selected biological sections are collected, translated, and published bimonthly. The article must be presented for publication by acting Russian or foreign members of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Editor-in-Chief: Yurii Osipov, President, Russian Academy of Sciences;

ISSN: 0012-4966 (print version);
ISSN: 1608-3105 (electronic version);

                                                          More detail on the journal see at the site:;



Answer: Just look on where the paper was cited: it was cited by the authors of other scientific articles who conducted their research in Europe, North America, and Asia (e.g., in China).



Answer: the results presented in the paper could be applied in explaining and predicting the behaviour of aquatic ecosystems, in securing the safety of the sources of water supply, in protecting biodiversity of aquatic organisms, in aquaculture, and in education.

These countries, regions will benefit from the theory of water self-purification:



 On the biotic self-purification of aquatic ecosystems: elements of the theory. – DAN (Doklady Akademii Nauk), Vol. 396, 2004, No. 1, p. 136–141. [System of elements of the theory of biotic maintaining the natural purification potential of ecosystems]. The paper was awarded the honorary Diploma from the Academy of Water Sciences (2006). In Russ., translated into Eng.



Answer: In biology and ecology, one of the most fundamental and intriguing problems is stability of biological and ecological systems. What makes ecological systems stable under changing circumstances? In case of aquatic ecosystems, this issue is very much connected to the mystery of stability of aquatic habitats, i.e., water quality. This paper gives answers to that question.



Answer: the other discoveries by the same author (S.A.O.) are listed online:;


18 KEY INNOVATIONS: Dramatic, exciting, startling, revolutionary DISCOVERIES: ecology, environmental sciences, biology.


Environment, ecology: 18 innovations, other files online. Innovative conceptualization: ecosystems; water quality et al.

Ecology. Key Innovations, Discoveries. The material is a brief summary of innovations in the publications authored and coauthored by Dr. S.A. Ostroumov: ecology, environmental science, biology, ecotoxicology, biogeochemistry, biological, self-purification, water, ecotechnology, pollution control, bioassay, hazard assessment, xenobiotics, surfactants, detergents, heavy metals, toxicity, phytotoxicity, nanomaterials,  pollutants, bivalves, mussels, Mytilus, edulis, galloprovincialis, oysters, Crassostrea, gigas, filtering, water, quality, ecosystem, safery, sustainability;



Answer: yes, and it is shown in the following article:

Aquaculture,   Volume 314, Issues 1-4, 2011, Pages 244-251;


Feeding activity of mussels (Mytilus edulis) held in the field at an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) site (Salmo salar) and exposed to fish food in the laboratory. Bruce A. MacDonald a,  Shawn M.C. Robinson b and Kelly A. Barrington a;



Answer: those publications are available on the sites that are listed here:

Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002. vol. 469, pages 117-129; [ key words: Improving water quality, sustainability, environment safety]

On Some Issues of Maintaining Water Quality and Self-Purification.  – Water Resources, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2005, pp. 305–313 [Translated from Vodnye Resursy, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2005, pp. 337–346]


1.Legendary.discoveries.(New Draft). Innovative Concepts of How Ecosystems Improve Water Quality. Theory of water self-purification.



Legendary.discoveries. 3 (NewDraft).Inhibitory analysis: New method to explore regulatory mechanisms, top-down control in ecosystems: issues of eutrophication, algal bloom, self-purification:

** On the multifunctional role of the biota in the self-purification of aquatic ecosystems. -RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, 2005, 36 (6): 414-420.


Ostroumov S. A. Basics of the molecular-ecological mechanism of water quality formation and water self-purification. – CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF ECOLOGY, 2008, 1 (1): 147-152.;




Answer: Some examples are below:

Estimation of critical nutrient amounts based on input-output analysis in an agriculture watershed of eastern China:

[PDF] from DJ Chen, J Lu, YN Shen, RA Dahlgren… – Agriculture, Ecosystems & …, 2009 – Elsevier

The concept of critical nutrient amounts (CNA) for a watershed was developed to address eutrophication in surface waters from diffuse (non-point) source pollution. CNA is defined as the maximum allowable applied or generated amount (AGA) of a nutrient from natural and human sources that …


SA Ostroumov. Biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine and estuarine systems: elements of a qualitative theory:

[PDF] from SA Ostroumov – International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography, 2006 –

Basic elements are formulated for a qualitative theory of the polyfunctional role of the biota in

maintaining self-purification and water quality in aquatic ecosystems. The elements of the theory

covers the following: (1) sources of energy for the mechanisms of self- purification; (2) the …


Self-Purification of Water Current and the Role of Microbiological Transformation of Organic Matter in the System of the Selenga River and Its Delta:

EO Makushkin… – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2005 – Springer;

The purpose of this study was to determine the self- purification elements of the water current

of the Selenga River, the main water source of Lake Baikal, in its lower reaches. For this

purpose, we analyzed our own data on the effects of pollutants, including organic …


On studying the hazards of pollution of the biosphere: Effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) on planktonic filter-feeders.

IM Vorozhun… – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2009 – Springer;

The goal of this study was to test whether SDS has an inhibitory effect on the ability of planktonic

filter- feeders Daphnia magna to remove phytoplankton from water during their filtration

activity. Experiments were performed with five-day-old D. magna approximately 1 mm in …


Accelerated decrease in surfactant concentration in the water of a microcosm in the presence of plants: Innovations for phytotechnology;

EV Lazareva… – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2009 – Springer;

Surfactants are an important group of membranotropic pollutants [1, 2]. Higher plants, including

aquatic ones, form the basis for phytotechnologies used to purify and remediate natural environment

polluted with various agents [3]. Aquatic plants (macrophytes) can serve as …


[PDF] 过水性湖泊自净能力的动态变化

[PDF] from任瑞 刘茂松 章杰明 张明… – 态学杂志, 2007 –

Self-purification ability of a water-carrying lake. REN Rui4li1 LIU Mao4song1 ZHANG Jie4

ming2 ZHANG Ming3 XU Mei11 School of Life ScienceNanjing UniversityNanjing

210093 China2 Suqian Bureau of ForestrySuqian 223800JiangsuChina3 …


Artificial neural network modelling of concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and dissolved oxygen in a non-point source polluted river in Zhejiang Province, southeast …

D Chen, J Lu… – Hydrological Processes, 2010 –

A back-propagation algorithm neural network (BPNN) was developed to synchronously simulate

concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in response

to agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) for any month and location in the …


[PDF] The theory of the hydrobiological mechanism of water self-purification in water bodies: from theory to practice

[PDF] from SA Ostroumov –

Abstract. New data on effects of chemicals (surfactants) on water filtration by aquatic invertebrates

are reported. The basics of the new theory of the polyfunctional role of biota in self-purification

of water in aquatic ecosystems (lakes, rivers, man-made reservoirs) are formulated. The …


Kinetics of the enzymatic decomposition of macromolecules with a fractal structure;

BM Dolgonosov… – Theoretical Foundations of …, 2007 – Springer;

Study of the decomposition of organic matter in natural water ecosystems and industrial processes

such as the processing of wood and wastewater treatment is of current concern to the solution

of environmental protection problems. The basic hard-to-oxidize components of organic …


Decreasing the measurable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the water of the experimental systems containing Ceratophyllum demersum: The …

[PDF] from SA Ostroumov… – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2009 – Springer

Development of VI Vernadsky’s theory of the biosphere has revealed new examples of how

organisms affect the physical and chemical parameters of the environment [1, 2], including the

characteristics of the aquatic environment [3, 4]. Natural aquatic ecosystems have …



许磊  陈英旭 姚玉鑫 梁新 周李… – 环境科学, 2010 –


中文期刊·专业文章维普专业检索错误号99 该篇文章不存在或已被移除

<<回到维普资讯首页关于我 | 客服中心 | 广告服 | 权合作 | 网站联盟 …


A related paper (Ostroumov, S. A. 2005. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Hydrobiologia 542:275–286) was cited in this article:;

Caryn C. Vaughn, S. Jerrine Nichols, Daniel E. Spooner;

Community and foodweb ecology of freshwater mussels.

Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27(2): 409-423. 2008

doi: 10.1899/07-058.1;



Answer. Some of the recent papers by the same author are as following:

Biocontrol of Water Quality: Multifunctional Role of Biota in Water Self-Purification.-Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 80, No. 13, 2010, p. 2754–2761.


Publications. Ecology, Environment, Biology. 2009-2010. See online free:;

Areas of science: Ecology, Environment, Biology, Phytotechnology, Water quality, Bioassays: publications in 2009- 2010, authored and coauthored by Dr. S.A. Ostroumov, in English and Russian languages. Some of the other related publications by the same author(s) see at:; Ecology, Environmental Science;;   World-wide and international citing of the publications…;



Answer: Yes, the concise summary is available online free:


18 KEY INNOVATIONS:  DISCOVERIES: ecology, environmental sciences, biology.


Environment, ecology: 18 innovations, other files online. Innovative conceptualization: ecosystems; water quality et al.


Environment, ecology: 18 innovations, other files online. Innovative conceptualization: ecosystems; water quality et al.


INNOVATIONS, DISCOVERIES, in ecology, environmental sciences, biology. 18 Items. Sites in Other Languages, List of One-line Titles.




Why the current measures against water pollution will fail for sure, if the new discoveries are ignored.


Recent web-sites: new and updated: 1500 words, 5 pages



Selected bibliography: ecology, biogeochemistry, env. science …


Theory of how aquatic ecosystem works toward improving water quality. New: ecological self-purification of water


31 Publications (life science, ecology, environmental science). Articles.


Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas,  Thalassiosira pseudonana, Synechococcus, Fagopyrum esculentum, Oryza sativa, 25 articles published:


Top of top. Environmental Science: blog posts


25 Top Innovations on Water Safety, Ecology. Selected, Indexed by Web of Science. Publications, With Comments on What is New. Publications with DOI;


Water quality and self-purification. Innovative paper of 2010, the reference and the site with the full text available online free.
Addendum: summaries of 25 related publications on environmental sciences.



KEY WORDS: frequently asked questions,

marine, freshwater, mussels, water self-purification, ecosystem, aquatic, water quality, pollutants,  pollution, biosphere, surfactants, detergents, sustainability, environmental safety, ecosystem services, organisms, functions, ecotoxicology, environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, hydrobiology,

Toxicological, Bulletin, Doklady, Biological, Sciences, Akademii, Nauk, hazards, phytotechnology, phytoremediation, S.A.Ostroumov, water, university, xenobiotics, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis,

Self-organization in hydrosphere: Aquatic ecosystems maintain water quality as a result of activity of biological community. New achievements in environmental science.

Self-organization in hydrosphere is very important. Recent research discovered that  aquatic ecosystems maintain water quality as a result of activity of biological community. This takes place both in marine and freshwater aquatic bodies. This is another new achievement in environmental science. The research was conducted at M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University.  More data and relevant bibliography are at the site:;
Основная библиография в форме легкочитаемой таблицы с комментариями и сайтами. Основные статьи, публикации по экологии, окружающей среде. Примеры работ, выполненных в Московском государственном университете им. М.В.Ломоносова. С аннотациями.

Многие из этих работ – статьи о водных экосистемах. Исследования показали роль водных организмов в самоочищении воды. В результате водные экосистемы способны поддерживать чистоту воды. Это имеет место и в пресноводных, и морских водоемах.

Key words in some languages are below.

Ключевые слова на нескольких языках:

Поллютанты, вещества, поллютанты, синтетические, поверхностно-активные, вещества, ПАВ, детергенты, синтетические моющие средства, фитопланктон, микроводоросли, диатомовые, неионный, моющие, средства, детергенты, фильтрационная, активность, морские, двустворчатые, моллюски, устрицы, мидии, фитопланктон, водоросли, трофические связи, биогены, токсикология, окружающей, среды, экотоксикология, водные, экосистемы, функционирование, экосистем, водная, биота, гидробионты,  гидробиология, экология, охрана природы, гидробионты, науки,  окружающая среда, гидробиологические, экологические, дисциплины, образование, обучение, экобезопасность, устойчивое развитие, загрязнение, самоочищение, водные, экосистемы, морские, пресноводные, восстановление, поллютанты, поверхностно-активные вещества, ПАВ, детергенты, гидросфера, биосфера, сохранение биоразнообразия, поллютанты , качество воды, фиторемедиация, водные, высшие растения , макрофиты , фитотехнология, биотестирование, оценка экологической опасности, биогеохимия, очищение воды, охрана природы,

Ключевые слова – Азербайджанский язык:

Çirkləndiricilər, maddələrin, çirkləndirici, sintetik səthi aktiv, maddələrin, səthi, yuyucu maddələr, sintetik yuyucu maddələr, fitoplankton, macroalgae, diatoms, nonionic, deterjan, alətlər, yuyucu maddələr, filtrasiya, fəaliyyəti, dəniz, bivalve, clams, oysters, mussels, fitoplankton, yosun və trophic münasibətlər, qida maddələri, toksikoloji, ətraf mühit, ətraf mühit, ecotoxicology, su, ekosistemlərin, fəaliyyət ekosistemlərə, su, biota, su həyatı, hydrobiology, ekologiya, ətraf mühit, su həyat, elm, ətraf mühit, hidro-bioloji, ekoloji, nizam-intizam təhsil, təlim, ekoloji təhlükəsizlik, davamlı inkişaf, çirklənmə, özünü təmizləmə, su, ekosistemlərin, dəniz, şirin, bərpası, çirkləndirici, səthi-aktiv agentlər, səthi, yuyucu maddələr, hydrosphere, biosfer, biomüxtəlifliyin qorunması, çirkləndirici maddələrin, suyun keyfiyyəti, phytoremediation, su , ali bitkilər, macrophytes, phytotechnologies, bioloji test, ekoloji risklərin qiymətləndirilməsi, biogeochemistry, suyun təmizlənməsi, saxlanması,

Армянский язык:

Աղտոտող նյութերի, նյութերի, աղտոտիչները, սինթետիկ surfactants, նյութերի, surfactants, լվացամիջոցներ, սինթետիկ լվացամիջոցներ, phytoplankton, macroalgae, diatoms, nonionic, ախտահանող, գործիքներ, լվացամիջոցներ, ֆիլտրում, գործունեություն, ծովային, երկպատյան, կակղամորթեր, oysters, mussels, phytoplankton, ջրիմուռներով եւ trophic հարաբերությունների, սնուցիչների, թունաբանության, բնապահպանական, շրջակա միջավայրի, ecotoxicology, ջուր, էկոհամակարգերի, գործող էկոհամակարգերի, ջրային, biota, ջրային կյանքը, hydrobiology, բնապահպանության, շրջակա միջավայրի, ջրային կյանքը, գիտության, բնապահպանության, ՀԷԿ – կենսաբանական, բնապահպանական, կարգապահությունը կրթության, վերապատրաստման, շրջակա միջավայրի անվտանգությունը, կայուն զարգացման, աղտոտման, ինքնահաստատման մաքրում, ջուր, էկոհամակարգերի, ծովային, freshwater, վերականգնման, աղտոտիչները, մակերեսային – ակտիվ գործակալները, surfactants, լվացամիջոցներ, hydrosphere, biosphere, կենսաբազմազանության պահպանումը, աղտոտող նյութերի, ջրի որակի, phytoremediation, ջրի , բարձրագույն բույսերը, macrophytes, phytotechnologies, կենսաբանական թեստավորման, գնահատման բնապահպանական ռիսկերը, biogeochemistry, ջրի մաքրման, կոնսերվացման,

Белорусский язык:

Палютантамі, рэчывы, палютантамі, сінтэтычныя, павярхоўна-актыўныя, рэчывы, ПАВ, дэтэргентаў, сінтэтычныя мыйныя сродкі, фітапланктон, мікраводарасцей, диатомовые, неионный, мыйныя, сродкі, дэтэргентаў, фільтрацыйных, актыўнасць, марскія, двухстворкавыя, малюскі, вустрыцы, мідыі, фітапланктон, багавінне, трафічныя сувязі, биогены, таксікалогія, навакольнага, асяроддзя, экотоксикология, водныя, экасістэмы, функцыянаванне, экасістэм, водная, биота, гідрабіёнты, гідрабіялогіі, экалогія, ахова прыроды, гідрабіёнты, навукі, навакольнае асяроддзе, гідрабіялагічныя, экалагічныя, дысцыпліны , адукацыя, навучанне, экобезопасность, устойлівае развіццё, забруджванне, самаачышчэнне, водныя, экасістэмы, марскія, пресноводные, аднаўленне, палютантамі, павярхоўна-актыўныя рэчывы, ПАВ, дэтэргентаў, гідрасфера, біясфера, захаванне біяразнастайнасці, палютантамі, якасць вады, фиторемедиация, водныя , вышэйшыя расліны, макрофиты, фитотехнология, биотестирование, ацэнка экалагічнай небяспекі, биогеохимия, ачышчэнне вады, ахова прыроды,

Болгарский язык:

Замърсители, вещества, замърсители, синтетични повърхностноактивни вещества,, повърхностноактивни вещества, препарати, синтетични детергенти, фитопланктон, макроалги, диатомеи, нейонни, прах за пране, инструменти, перилни препарати, филтрация, дейност, морски мекотели, миди, стриди, миди, фитопланктон, водорасли и трофични отношения, хранителни вещества, токсикологията, околната среда, околна среда, екотоксикология, водата, екосистеми, функциониращи екосистеми, водата, флората и фауната, водната флора и фауна, хидробиология, екология, околна среда, водните организми, науката, околната среда, хидро-биологични, екологични, дисциплина образование, обучение, безопасността за околната среда, устойчивото развитие, замърсяване, самопочистващи се, водата, екосистеми, морски, сладководни, възстановяване, замърсители, повърхностно активни агенти, повърхностноактивни вещества, препарати, хидросферата, биосферата, опазване на биологичното разнообразие, замърсители, качеството на водата, phytoremediation, вода , висши растения, макрофити, phytotechnologies, биологично изпитване, оценка на рисковете за околната среда, биогеохимията, пречистване на водата, опазването,


Szennyező anyagok, anyagok, szennyező anyagok, szintetikus felületaktív anyagok, felületaktív anyagok, mosószerek, szintetikus mosószerek, fitoplankton, makroalgák, kovamoszat, nem ionos, tisztítószer, eszközök, tisztítószerek, szűrés, tevékenység, tengeri, kéthéjú, kagyló, osztriga, kagyló, fitoplankton, algák és trofikus kapcsolatai, tápanyagok, toxikológiai, környezetvédelmi, környezet, ökotoxikológia, víz, ökoszisztémák, működő ökoszisztémák, víz, élővilág, a vízi élet, hidrobiológia, ökológia, környezet, a vízi élet, a tudomány, környezet-, víz-biológiai, környezeti, fegyelem oktatás, a szakképzés, a környezeti biztonság, a fenntartható fejlődés, a szennyezés, öntisztító, a víz, az ökológiai rendszerek, tengeri, édesvízi, hasznosítás, szennyező anyagok, felületaktív anyagok, felületaktív anyagok, mosószerek, hidroszféra, a bioszféra, a biológiai sokféleség megőrzése, szennyező anyagok, a víz minősége, phytoremediation, víz , magasabb rendű növények, makrofiták, phytotechnologies biológiai vizsgálata, értékelése a környezeti kockázatok, biogeochemistry, víztisztító, megőrzése,


დამაბინძურებლების, ნივთიერებების, დამაბინძურებლების, ხელოვნური ზედაპირული, ნივთიერებების, ზედაპირული, სარეცხი საშუალებები, სინთეზური სარეცხი საშუალებები, phytoplankton, macroalgae, diatoms, nonionic, სარეცხი, ინსტრუმენტები, სარეცხი საშუალებები, ფილტრაცია, საქმიანობის, საზღვაო, bivalve, clams, oysters, mussels, phytoplankton, წყალმცენარეები და ტროფიკული ურთიერთობები, ნუტრიენტები, ტოქსიკოლოგების საბოლოო დასკვნას, გარემოს, გარემოს, ecotoxicology, წყალი, ეკოსისტემების, ფუნქციონირებს ეკოსისტემების, წყალი, biota, წყლის ცხოვრების, ჰიდრობიოლოგია, ეკოლოგია, გარემოს დაცვა, წყლის ცხოვრების, მეცნიერების, გარემოს, ჰიდრო ბიოლოგიური, გარემოს, დისციპლინის განათლება, ტრენინგი, გარემოს უსაფრთხოება, მდგრადი განვითარება, დაბინძურების, თვითმმართველობის გაწმენდა, წყლის ეკოსისტემების, საზღვაო, მტკნარი, აღდგენა, დამაბინძურებლების, ზედაპირულად აქტიური აგენტები, ზედაპირული, სარეცხი საშუალებები, hydrosphere, ბიოსფერული, ბიომრავალფეროვნების, დამაბინძურებლების, წყლის ხარისხს, phytoremediation, წყლის , უმაღლესი მცენარეების, macrophytes, phytotechnologies, ბიოლოგიური ტესტირება, შეფასება გარემოსდაცვითი რისკების biogeochemistry, წყლის გამწმენდი, კონსერვაციის, SA Ostroumov, სერგეი Ostroumov,


Piesārņojošo vielu, vielu, piesārņojošo vielu, sintētisko virsmaktīvās vielas, vielas, virsmaktīvās vielas, mazgāšanas līdzekļi, sintētisko mazgāšanas līdzekļu, fitoplanktona, makroaļģu, kramaļģu, nejonu, mazgāšanas līdzekļi, instrumenti, mazgāšanas, filtrēšana, darbība, jūras, gliemenes, gliemežus, austeres, gliemenes, fitoplanktona, aļģēm un trofiskās attiecības, barības vielas, toksikoloģiju, vides, vides, ekotoksikoloģija, ūdens, ekosistēmas, funkcionējošas ekosistēmas, ūdens, floru un faunu, ūdens dzīvajiem organismiem, Hidrobioloģijas, ekoloģija, vides, ūdens dzīvajiem organismiem, zinātnes, vides, hidro-bioloģisko, vides, disciplīna izglītības, mācību, vides drošības, ilgtspējīgas attīstības, vides piesārņojumu, pašattīrīšanās, ūdens, ekosistēmas, jūras, saldūdens, reģenerēšanai, piesārņojošās vielas, virsmaktīvās vielas, virsmaktīvās vielas, mazgāšanas līdzekļi, hidrosfēras, biosfēras, bioloģiskās daudzveidības saglabāšana, piesārņojuma, ūdens kvalitāti, phytoremediation, ūdens , augstākie augi, makrofītu, phytotechnologies, bioloģisko testēšanu, novērtēšanu vides risku bioģeoķīmiju, ūdens attīrīšana, saglabāšana, SA Ostroumov, Sergejs Ostroumov,


Teršalai, medžiagų, teršalų, sintetiniai paviršiaus medžiagos, paviršiaus, ploviklių, sintetinių ploviklių, fitoplanktono, makrodumblių, titnagdumbliai, nonionic, ploviklis, įrankiai, ploviklių, filtravimas, veiklą, jūrų, dvigeldžių, moliuskai, austrės, midijos, fitoplanktono, dumblių ir trofiniai ryšiai, maistinių medžiagų, toksikologija, aplinkos, aplinka, ekotoksikologijos, vandens ekosistemų funkcionavimą ekosistemoms, vandens, biotos, vandens gyvūnijai, hidrobiologija, ekologija, aplinka, vandens gyvenime, mokslo, aplinkos, vandens, biologinės, aplinkos, drausmės švietimo, mokymo, aplinkos apsaugos, tvarios plėtros, tarša, savarankiškai valymo, vandens, ekosistemų, jūros, gėlo vandens, regeneravimo, teršalai, paviršinio aktyvumo medžiagos, paviršinio aktyvumo medžiagas, ploviklius, hidrosferos, biosferos, biologinės įvairovės išsaugojimo, teršalai, vandens kokybei, Fitoremediacja, vandens , aukštesniųjų augalų, makrofitų, phytotechnologies, biologinių bandymų, įvertinimo pavojaus aplinkai, biogeochemijos, vandens valymo, apsaugos, SA Ostroumov, Sergejus Ostroumov,


Zanieczyszczeń, substancji zanieczyszczających, syntetyczne środki powierzchniowo czynne, substancje powierzchniowo czynne, detergenty syntetyczne detergenty, fitoplankton, makroglonów, okrzemki, niejonowe, detergenty, narzędzia, środki czystości, filtracja, działalność, morskie, małże, małże, ostrygi, małże, fitoplankton, glony i troficznych stosunków składników odżywczych, toksykologii, ochrony środowiska, ochrony środowiska, ekotoksykologii, wody, ekosystemów, funkcjonujące ekosystemy, wody, fauny i flory, życie w wodzie, hydrobiologii, ekologii, ochrony środowiska, organizmów wodnych, nauki, ochrony środowiska, hydro-biologicznych, środowiskowych, dyscypliny edukacja, szkolenia, bezpieczeństwo środowiska, zrównoważonego rozwoju, zanieczyszczenia, samooczyszczające, wody, ekosystemów, morskich, słodkowodnych, odzysku, zanieczyszczeń, środki powierzchniowo czynne, środki powierzchniowo czynne, detergenty, hydrosfery, biosfery, ochrony różnorodności biologicznej, zanieczyszczenia, jakość wody, fitoremediacji, wody , rośliny wyższe, makrofity, phytotechnologies, badań biologicznych, oceny ryzyka dla środowiska, biogeochemia, oczyszczanie wody, ochrony, SA Ostroumow, Sergey Ostroumow,

Румынский, молдавский:

Poluanţi, substanţele, poluanţii, agenţi tensioactivi sintetice, substanţe, agenţi tensioactivi, detergenţi, detergenţi sintetici, fitoplanctonul, macroalgelor, diatomee, neionic, detergent, unelte, detergenti, filtrare, activitatea, marine, bivalve, scoici, stridii, midii, Relaţii fitoplanctonului, alge şi trofice, nutrienţi, toxicologie, mediul de mediu, ecotoxicologie, apă, ecosisteme, ecosistemele de funcţionare, apă, biota, viata acvatica, Hidrobiologie, ecologie, mediu, viata acvatica, ştiinţă, mediu, hidro-biologice, disciplina de mediu, educaţie, formare profesională, siguranţa mediului, dezvoltarea durabilă, poluare, auto-curăţare, apă, ecosistemele, marine, de apă dulce, de recuperare, poluanţii, agenţii activi de suprafaţă, agenţi tensioactivi, detergenţi, hidrosfera, biosfera, conservarea biodiversităţii, poluante, calitatea apei, fitoremediere, apă , plante superioare, macrofite, phytotechnologies, testarea biologică, evaluarea riscurilor de mediu, biogeochimiei, purificarea apei, conservarea, SA Ostroumov, Serghei Ostroumov,


Загађивача, супстанци, загађивача, синтетичке површински, супстанце, површински, детерџенти, синтетичких детерџената, фитопланктона, макроалги, диатоми, нониониц, детерџент, средства, детерџенти, филтрација, активност, марина, шкољки, шкољке, остриге, дагње, фитопланктон, алге и трофична односа, хранљиве материје, токсикологије, заштите животне средине, заштите околине, екотоксикологије, вода, екосистема, функционисање екосистема, вода, биоте, водене живот, хидробиологије, екологије, животне средине, водени свет, науке, животне средине, хидро-биолошке, еколошке, дисциплина образовање, обуку, еколошке безбедности, одрживог развоја, загађење, само-чишћење, вода, екосистема, марина, слатководни, опоравак, загађивача, површински активна средства, површински, детерџенти, хидросферу, биосферу, биодиверзитета, загађивача, квалитет воде, Фиторемедијација, вода , виших биљака, макрофита, пхитотецхнологиес, биолошких тестирања, процена еколошких ризика, биогеоцхемистри, пречишћавање воде, конзервација, СА Остроумов, Сергеј Остроумов,


Znečisťujúce látky, látky, znečisťujúce látky, syntetické povrchovo aktívne látky, látky, povrchovo aktívne látky, detergenty, syntetické čistiace prostriedky, fytoplanktónu, makrorias, Rozsievky, neiónových, saponáty, prostriedky, čistiace prostriedky, filtrácie, činnosť, námorné, mušle, mušle, ustrice, mušle, fytoplanktónu, rias a trofické vzťahy, živiny, toxikológiu, životné prostredie, životné prostredie, ekotoxikológie, vody, ekosystémy a fungujúce ekosystémy, voda, biota, vodný život, hydrobiologie, ekológia, životné prostredie, vodné život, vedy, životného prostredia, hydro-biologických, ekologických, disciplína výchovu, vzdelávanie, bezpečnosť pre životné prostredie, trvalo udržateľný rozvoj, znečistenie, samočistiaci, vody, ekosystémy, morské, sladkovodné, zotavenie, znečisťujúce látky, povrchovo aktívne látky, povrchovo aktívne látky, detergenty, hydrosféra, biosféra, zachovanie biologickej rozmanitosti, znečisťujúcich látok, kvalita vody, fytoremediačních, voda , vyššie rastliny, makrofytov, phytotechnologies, biologické skúšky, hodnotenie rizík pre životné prostredie, biogeochemie, čistenie vody, zachovanie, SA Ostroumov, Sergey Ostroumov,


Onesnaževali, snovi, škodljivih snovi, sintetična površinsko, snovi, površinsko, detergenti, sintetičnih detergentov, fitoplankton, makroalge, diatomeje, neionski, detergent, orodja, detergenti, filtracija, dejavnost, marine, školjke, školjke, ostrige, dagnje, fitoplanktona, alg in trofični odnosi, hranilne snovi, toksikologijo, okolja, okolje, ekotoksikologiji, voda, ekosisteme, delovanje ekosistemov, voda, žive organizme, vodno življenje, Hidrobiologija, ekologija, okolje, življenje v vodi, znanosti, okolja, hidro-bioloških, okoljskih, discipline izobraževanja, usposabljanja, varovanje okolja, trajnostni razvoj, onesnaževanje, self-čiščenje, vodo, ekosistemi, morske, sladke vode, predelave, onesnaževala, površinsko aktivna sredstva, površinsko, detergenti, hidrosfere, biosfere, ohranjanje biotske raznovrstnosti, okolju škodljivih snovi, kakovost vode, phytoremediation, vodo , višje rastline, makrofitov, phytotechnologies, biološko testiranje, ocenjevanje tveganja za okolje, biogeochemistry, čiščenje vode, ohranjanje, SA Ostroumov, Sergey Ostroumov,


Полютантів, речовини, поллютантами, синтетичні, поверхнево-активні, речовини, ПАР, детергенти, синтетичні миючі засоби, фітопланктон, мікроводорості, діатомові, неіонний, мийні, засоби, детергенти, фільтраційна, активність, морські, двостулкові, молюски, устриці, мідії, фітопланктон, водорості, трофічні зв’язки, БіоГая, токсикологія, навколишнього, середовища, екотоксикологія, водні, екосистеми, функціонування, екосистем, водна, біота, гідробіонти, гідробіологія, екологія, охорона природи, гідробіонти, науки, навколишнє середовище, гідробіологічні, екологічні, дисципліни , освіта, навчання, екобезпека, сталий розвиток, забруднення, самоочищення, водні, екосистеми, морські, прісноводні, відновлення, поллютантами, поверхнево-активні речовини, ПАР, детергенти, гідросфера, біосфера, збереження біорізноманіття, поллютантами, якість води, фіторемедіація, водні , вищі рослини, макрофітів, фітотехнологій, біотестування, оцінка екологічної небезпеки, біогеохімія, очищення води, охорона природи, С.А. Остроумов, Сергій А. Остроумов,


Onečišćujućih tvari, tvari, onečišćenja, sintetski tenzidi, tvari, tvari, deterdženti, sintetički detergenti, fitoplankton, makroalge, dijatomeje, nonionic, deterdžent, alati, deterdženti, filtracija, aktivnosti, pomorski, školjkaša, školjke, kamenice, dagnje, fitoplanktona, algi i trofičkih odnosa, hranjive tvari, toksikologije, okoliš, okoliš, ekotoksikologija, voda, ekosustava, funkcioniranje ekosustava, voda, bioti, vodeni svijet, Hidrobiologija, ekologija, okoliš, vodeni svijet, znanost, okoliš, hidro-biološki, zaštitu okoliša, disciplina obrazovanje, obuku, sigurnost okoliša, održivi razvoj, zagađenje, self-čišćenje, voda, ekosustave, morski, slatkovodni, oporavak, onečišćenja, površinski aktivne tvari, tenzidi, deterdženti, hidrosfera, biosfere, očuvanje biološke raznolikosti, onečišćenja, kvalitete vode, phytoremediation, voda , viših biljaka, makrofitima, phytotechnologies, biološka ispitivanja, procjene rizika za okoliš, biogeochemistry, pročišćavanje vode, očuvanja, SA Ostroumov, Sergey Ostroumov,


Znečišťující látky, látky, znečišťující látky, syntetické povrchově aktivní látky, látky, povrchově aktivní látky, detergenty, syntetické čistící prostředky, fytoplanktonu, makrořas, rozsivky, neiontových, saponáty, prostředky, čistící prostředky, filtrace, činnost, námořní, škeble, mušle, ústřice, mušle, fytoplanktonu, řas a trofické vztahy, živiny, toxikologii, životní prostředí, životní prostředí, ekotoxikologie, vody, ekosystémy a fungující ekosystémy, voda, biota, vodní život, hydrobiologie, ekologie, životní prostředí, vodní život, vědy, životního prostředí, hydro-biologických, ekologických, disciplína výchovu, vzdělávání, bezpečnost pro životní prostředí, trvale udržitelný rozvoj, znečištění, samočistící, vody, ekosystémy, mořské, sladkovodní, zotavení, znečišťující látky, povrchově aktivní látky, povrchově aktivní látky, detergenty, hydrosféra, biosféra, zachování biologické rozmanitosti, znečišťujících látek, kvalita vody, fytoremediačních, voda , vyšší rostliny, makrofyt, phytotechnologies, biologické zkoušky, hodnocení rizik pro životní prostředí, biogeochemie, čištění vody, zachování, SA Ostroumov, Sergey Ostroumov,


Saasteained, ainete, saasteainete, sünteetilised pindaktiivsed ained, pindaktiivsed ained, pesuvahendid, sünteetiliste detergentide, fütoplankton, makrovetikate, ränivetikad, Mitteioonsed, pesuvahend, tööriistad, puhastusvahendid, filtreerimine, aktiivsus, mere-, kahepoolmeliste, karbid, austrid, rannakarbid, fütoplanktoni, vetikate ja troofiliste suhted, toitainete, toksikoloogia, keskkonna-, keskkonna, ökotoksikoloogia, vee ökosüsteeme, toimivad ökosüsteemid, vee-elustiku, veeorganismidele, hüdrobioloogia, ökoloogia, keskkond, veeorganismidele, teaduse, keskkonna-, hüdro-bioloogiliste, keskkonna-, distsipliini hariduse, koolituse, keskkonna ohutus, jätkusuutlik areng, reostus, isepuhastuv, vee ökosüsteemide-, mere-, magevee-, taaskasutus, saasteainete, pindaktiivsed ained, pindaktiivsed ained, pesuvahendid, hüdrosfäär, biosfäär, bioloogilise mitmekesisuse säilitamise, saasteained, vee kvaliteet, phytoremediation, vesi kõrgemad taimed, makrofüüdid, phytotechnologies bioloogilised uuringud, hindamine keskkonnariske, biogeokeemilised, vee puhastamine, konserveerimine, SA Ostroumov, Sergei Ostroumov;


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Поллютанты, зат, поллютанты, синтетикалық, поверхностно-активные, зат, пава, детергент, синтетикалық жуушы ақы-пұл, фитопланктон, шағынбалдыр, диатомовые, емесион, жуушы, ақы-пұл, детергент, фильтрлеу, белсенділік, дүнияуи, жармалы, ұлу, устрица, мидия, фитопланктон, балдыр, трофика байланыс, токсикология, қапта-, сәрсенбі, экотоксикология, сулы, экожүйе, функционирование, экожүйе, сулы, биосол, гидробионт,  гидробиология, экология, күзет табиғат, гидробионт, ғылым,  білім, қоршаған орта,, гидробиологиялық экологиялық, тәртіп, тәлім-тәрбие, экологиялық қауіпсіздік, төзімді даму, салтақтану, самоочищение, сулы, экожүйе, дүнияуи, пресноводные, қалпына келтір- поллютанты гидросала биоаймақ сақта- сапа фиторемедиация, су поллютанты, биокөптүрлілік, зат пава детергент, поверхностно-активные, сулы жоғарғы, өсімдік, макрофит, фитотехнология,


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библиография, экология, науки об окружающей среде, статьи, сайты Интернета, публикации, аннотации, инновации, впервые, открытия, МГУ,


Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear


  Recent data demonstrated a gigantic role of aquatic organisms in making water clean and clear. It was shown in the long-term international project that was carried out recently. The amazing results were presented in this paper, which is a review of the multi-year studies of aquatic organisms, mainly marine and freshwater invertebrates that are filter-feeders – freshwater mussels, marine mussels, oysters. They play a key role as biological filters – as an important part of the biosphere and hydrosphere. The studies were conducted in laboratories of four countries, including U.K. (England), Russia, Ukraine.

Ostroumov S.A. Biological filters are an important part of the biosphere – Science in Russia. 2009. No. 2. P. 30-36, in English. [The journal ‘Science in Russia’ is published by the Presidium of Russian Academy of Sciences, both in English and in Russian; Nauka Publishers, Moscow; ISSN 0869-7078., ©Russian Academy of Sciences Presidium.] Full text of the paper see:;

Additional in-depth analysis of the role of aquatic organisms that filter water was given also in the papers:
Ostroumov S.A. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders // Hydrobiologia. 2005. Vol. 542, No. 1. P. 275 – 286. text:
Also:; [planktonic filter-feeders];

see also Chapter entitled: “Suspension-feeders as factors influencing water quality in aquatic ecosystems”
in the book:



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