New environmental hazard: The hazard of a two-level synergism of synecological summation of anthropogenic effects

New environmental hazards were discovered, which is of importance to protection of environment.
Article titled:

The hazard of a two-level synergism of synecological summation of anthropogenic effects.

  • S A Ostroumov
    S. A.Ostroumov
(Lab of Physico- Chemistry of Biomembranes, Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Vorob’evy gory, Moscow, 119991 Russia).

Journal: Doklady Biological Sciences,  2001; 380:499-501.

 DOI 10.1023/A:1012348127085.
The paper presented new facts, new fundamental concepts, new terminology in science of ecology.
The rating of this article: excellent. See: rating at World Catalog. A favorable review was published at World Catalog: ;Discovery of a fundamentally new type of environmental hazards from chemical pollution. ;
The hazard of a two-level synergism of synecological summation of anthropogenic effects. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, Volume 380, Numbers 1-6, p. 499-501.
ISSN: 0012-4966 (print version); ISSN: 1608-3105 (electronic version); Editor of the peer-reviewed journal: President of Russian Academy of Sciences;

Full text oline free:;

Innovation in a nutshell: A new fundamental concept and new scientific terms, to develop terminology in environmental science, in ecology: Two-Level Synergism, Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects;
The author identified a new type of environmental hazard of anthropogenic impact (considering chemical pollution of water as an example). He proposed to term this new hazard “synecological summation” or “synergistic summation” of anthropogenic effects on organisms of two adjacent trophic levels. ** NEW FACTS: in the study reported in the paper, the following new type of environmental hazards was found. It was shown that even some relatively mild influences on organisms of two adjacent trophic levels may eventually produce a synergistic, pronounced and definitely undesirable effect which will lead to an abnormal increase in the abundance of organisms of one of the trophic levels. The concrete examples of that type of synergism were found when anthropogenic impacts affected the organisms of two adjacent trophic levels (an example: bivalves and algae). Some new  hazardous effects of an ecotoxicant, a synthetic detergent (exemplified by the trade mark Vesna) (1 mg/l) on the aquatic bivalve mollusks, oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were described. Also, some new effects of a detergent (exemplified by the trade mark IXI) (10 mg/l) on the marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), were found; also, new effects of the detergent (exemplified by the trade mark Tide-Lemon) (50 mg/l) on M. galloprovincialis were discovered. ** CONCLUSION: The hazard of simultaneous influence of environmental pollution (e.g., by detergents) on organisms of the two adjacent trophic levels may occur when the pollutant produces effects on algae and bivalves that are filter-feeders. It means that a new type of environmental hazards was discovered. [MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica, distributed by Springer Science+Business Media LLC.; ISSN 0012-4966 (Print) 1608-3105 (Online)];
DOI 10.1023/A:1012348127085;

tags for this article:
oysters, Crassostrea gigas, mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis,
water quality, water, theory, synthetic substances, synergism, suspension feeders, surfactants, summation, services, self-purification, quality, pollution, pollutants, plankton, pellets, new hazards, mussels, marine, mariculture, management, man-made impact, man-made effects, invertebrates, inhibitors, improving, water quality, hydrosphere, hazards, functioning, freshwater, filter-feeders, environmetal safety, environmental, toxicology, environmental chemistry, environment, protection, ecotoxicology, services, ecosystems, ecosystem, ecohazard, detergents, chemical, pollution, cationic surfactant, Black_Sea, bivalvia, bivalves, biosphere, biogeochemistry, biogeochemical, bioassays, benthos, assessment, aquatic, organisms, aquaculture, anthropogenic, impact,

Biodiversity protection is a necessary condition to maintain clean water, see the article titled: Biodiversity protection and quality of water: the role of feedbacks in ecosystems

Biodiversity protection is a necessary condition to maintain clean water. This is the main conclusion of the
article titled:
Biodiversity protection and quality of water: the role of feedbacks in ecosystems.;

DOI: 10.1023/A:1014465220673;
42 downloads by 26.01.2015. Ranking of this article increased recently (ranking on the basis of altmetrics score of attention online).
This paper is on the short prestigious, honorable list ‘Top papers, books on aquatic ecology, ecotoxicology’ at the largest global catalog, WorldCatalog [source:].
Innovative concepts that provide new arguments in biodiversity conservation, water ecosystem protection, protection of aquatic environment:
Ostroumov S. A. Biodiversity protection and quality of water: the role of feedbacks in ecosystems. – Doklady Biological Sciences. 2002. Volume 382, Numbers 1- 6, p. 18-21.
Full text: ;

The review (favorable) of this article was published at World Catalog; the review rated this article as excellent:
The text of the review in other languages:




Korean :

The paper presents some new ideas and new facts:

** NEW IDEAS: The article presents a new concept of how biodiversity helps towards better stability and water quality, in other words, how biodiversity is involved in the ecosystem services. The author made an innovative analysis of his experimental data which led to the following fundamental conclusion: to maintain water quality, it is vital to protect the functionally active biodiversity of water ecosystems. In other words, according to this article, the protection of functionally active, including filter-feeders, is a key to maintenance of water quality.
** NEW FACTS. Among new facts: the laundry detergent (exemplified by a common detergent IXI) 20 mg/L inhibited water filtration by bivalves, marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis; in another series of experiments, the laundry detergent (exemplified by the detergent Deni-Automat) 30 mg/L also inhibited the water filtration by another species of bivalve mollusks, namely, oyster Crassostrea gigas.
DOI 10.1023/A:1014465220673.; MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica distributed exclusively by Springer Science+Business Media LLC. ISSN 0012-4966 (Print) 1608-3105 (Online).;;


Inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes

Inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes.


Hydrobiologia, 2006, Volume: 556, Pages: 381-386.;

In 2006, an important series of experiments on ecotoxicology of detergents was published in the journal HYDROBIOLOGIA, (2006, Volume: 556, Pages: 381-386) by an international team of researchers. This was the first paper that reported the experiments that showed that all three main kinds of synthetic surfactants (detergent chemicals) slow down the filtration of water by key marine organisms, filter-feeders, bivalves, namely, the marine mussels of the Atlantic Ocean (Mytilus edulis).


Online, key links to this article:;;

Sergei A. Ostroumov, John Widdows,
Authors affiliation:
Moscow State University, Plymouth Marine Laboratory,
marine mussels, Mytilus edulis, surfactants, detergents, toxicology, protection of environment, water quality, pollution, marine, aquatic, new, water, filtration,

Seafood: New threat to aquaculture of marine mussels … and cultural heritage of Europe

  New threat to aquaculture of marine mussels
This is about the bivalve mollusk, blue mussel Mytilus edulis.


Marine mussels are a source of delicious and healthy food. Marine mussels are a staple of many seafood dishes in various cuisines including Spanish, French, Italian, Dutch, Portuguese, Belgian, and others …
They are cultivated as aquaculture.

The pictures of these mollusks, with the Latin name Mytilus edulis, are given below.


The life cycle of marine mussels is presented here:


The geographical range of this species is on the map:


Discovery, scientific innovation.

New research discovered a new threat to marine mussels. It was found [2-7] that the mussels decreased their water filtration rate under the effect of some synthetic chemicals that pollute seawater. The name of these organic chemicals is surfactants (surface active substances, surface active agents). The surfactants are the key foam-forming component of detergents and shampoos.

Additional scientific information.

More about the effects of surfactants see in the blogs [1], and in the scientific papers [2 – 7 ].
This post is the forth one, to continue the series of posts on environmental and ecological issues [1-3].

Mussels and cultural heritage: poetry

Marine mussels  were mentioned in the song – the song that tells the fictional tale of a beautiful fishmonger :

In Dublin’s fair city,
Where the girls are so pretty,
I first set my eyes on sweet Molly Malone,
As she wheeled her wheel-barrow,
Through streets broad and narrow,
Crying, “Cockles and mussels, alive, alive,
[“Molly Malone” (also known as “Cockles and Mussels” or “In Dublin’s Fair City“),
a popular song, set in Dublin, Ireland,
which has become the unofficial anthem of Dublin City]


A legend grew up that there was a lady Molly, who lived in the 17th century.

In some books, she  is  represented as a hawker by day and part-time prostitute by night [8].

In 1988 the Dublin Millennium Commission endorsed claims concerning a Molly Malone who died on 13 June 1699, and proclaimed 13 June to be “Molly Malone day”  [8].

The Molly Malone statue:

The Molly Malone statue in Grafton Street (Dublin) was unveiled by Lord Mayor of Dublin, Alderman Ben Briscoe during the 1988 Dublin Millennium celebrations, declaring 13 June as Molly Malone Day.

This poem and song became really important.

Therefore, conservation and survival of this species of bivalve mollusks is important from various perspectives: not only for reasons of food but also for reasons of cultural heritage.

References (marine mussels Mytilus edulis were studied):

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

[2] Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia, Vol. 469, No. 1. , pp. 117-129, [Improving water quality, sustainability, environment safety];


[3] An Amphiphilic Substance Inhibits the Mollusk Capacity to Filter out Phytoplankton Cells from Water. – Biology Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 1. , pp. 95-102, doi:10.1023/A:1026671024000


[4] Studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filter-feeding bivalves. – Hydrobiologia, Vol. 500, No. 1. , pp. 341-344, doi:10.1023/A:1024604904065;
[5] О биотическом самоочищении водных экосистем. Элементы теории. – Доклады Академии Наук (ДАН, Doklady Akademii Nauk). Vol.396. No. 1. p.136-141 :,,;
[6] Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders; In: Aquatic Biodiversity II, (edited by: H. Segers, K. Martens) Vol. 180, pp. 275-286, doi:10.1007/1-4020-4111-X_26;

[7] Also see:;

[8] Siobhán Marie Kilfeather, Dublin: a cultural history, Oxford University Press US, 2005, p. 6.


interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:;;;;;;;;;;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

On the author:

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

key words: New threat, aquaculture, marine mussels, blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, staple food, seafood, dishes, cuisines, pollution, detergents, surfactants, water quality, environmental toxicology, аквакультура, мидии, детергенты,