Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification.

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Ostroumov S.A. Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002. 469: 117-129.
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DOI 10.1023/A:1015559123646;
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KEYWORDS: self-purification, filter-feeders, surfactants, detergents, benthic, bivalves, aquatic, ecosystems, eutrophication, algal, blooms, hazards, chemical pollution, water quality, phytoplankton, marine, freshwater, invertebrates, clearance rate, biological effects, xenobiotics, ecotoxicants, pollutants, sustainable use, aquatic resources, aquaculture, mariculture, ecosystem services, environmental science, ecotoxicology, pollution control, bioassay, mussels, oysters, man-made effects, anthropogenic, biodiversity, clearance rate, LAS, linear alkylbenzene sulphonate, NOEC, No observable effect consentration, QSAR, quantitative structure – activity relationship, SFG, Scope for Growth, SDS, sodium dodecyl sulphate, TDTMA, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, TX100, Triton X-100, sublethal effects, pellets, faeces, pseudofaeces, suspended matter, preventing, algal blooms, sponges, polychaetes, molluscs, echinoderms, larvae of insects, ascidians, alkylsulfates, nonionic surfactants, nonylphenols, bioassay, Cladocera, Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia dubia, anilazin, benomyl, bentazon, cyfluthrin, dimethoat, lindan, maneb, zineb, ziram, pesticides, inhibitory effects on feeding, mortality, EC50, LC50, endosulfan, diazinon, methyl parathion, lindan, dichlobenil, Unio tumidus, U. pictorum, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas
ABSTRACT (A SHORT VERSION):
Top-down control is an important type of interspecies interactions in food webs. It is especially important for aquatic ecosystems. Phytoplankton grazers contribute to the top-down control of phytoplankton populations. The paper is focused on the role of benthic filter feeders in the control of plankton populations as a result of water filtering and the removal of cells of plankton from the water column. New data on the inhibitory effects of surfactants and detergents on benthic filter-feeders (Unio tumidus, U. pictorum, Mytilus galloprovincialis, M. edulis, and Crassostrea gigas) are presented and discussed. Importance and efficiency of that approach to the problems of eutrophication and water self-purification is pointed out. Chemical pollution may pose a threat to the natural top-down control of phytoplankton and water self-purification process. The protection of that natural top-down control is considered an important prerequisite for sustainable use of aquatic resources.
The paper was cited by international scientists, including:
Bryan W. Brooks, Timothy Riley, Ritchie Taylor. Water quality of effluent-dominated stream ecosystems: ecotoxicological, hydrological, and management considerations
Hydrobiologia 2006; 556(1):365-379;
Chatzinikolaou Y. and Lazaridou M. Identification of the self-purification stretches of the Pinios River, Central Greece. – Mediterranean Marine Science, 2007, Vol. 8 (2), p. 19-32.
GL Wei, ZF Yang, BS Cui, B. Li, H. Chen, JH Bai, S.K. Dong [GuoLiang Wei, ZhiFeng Yang, BaoShan Cui, Bing Li, He Chen, JunHong Bai and ShiKui Dong] Impact of Dam Construction on Water Quality and Water Self-Purification Capacity of the Lancang River, China. – Water Resour Manage (2009) 23:1763–1780.
Samal, N. R.; Mazumdar, A.; Johnk, K. D.; Peeters, F. Assessment of ecosystem health of tropical shallow waterbodies in eastern India using turbulence model.-Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, Volume 12, Number 2, April 2009, pp. 215-225.
Bhatti, Zafar. Lake and Reservoir Management. – Water Environment Research [Water Environ. Res.]. Oct 2004.Vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 2106-2154.
ABBREVIATIONS: CR – clearance rate; LAS – linear alkylbenzene sulphonate; NOEC – No observable effect consentration; QSAR – quantitative structure – activity relationship; SFG – Scope for Growth; SDS – sodium dodecyl sulphate; TDTMA – tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide; TX100 – Triton X-100
ADDENDUM TO THE ABSTRACT (EXTENDED VERSION of the abstract, or a condensed text of the article):
1. INTRODUCTION
By definition, the organisms of the two adjacent trophic levels interact with each other so that the organisms of the higher trophic level may produce some effect on the organisms of the lower trophic level. If the latter are not too abundant, the effects of the organisms of the higher level lead to limiting, decreasing or stabilizing the populations of the organisms of the lower trophic level. These effects might be considered a control or a partial control of the organisms of the lower trophic level. Many examples of interactions of that type were studied in various natural and experimental systems (Table 1). The significance of top-down control attributes additional importance to studies of the grazing activity of crustaceans (e.g., Sushchenya, 1975; Gutelmaher, 1986), rotifers (e.g., Monakov, 1998; Bul’on et al., 1999), protozoan plankton (e.g., Bul’on et al., 1999), and benthic invertebrates (e.g., Alimov, 1981; Donkin et al., 1989, 1991; Zaika, 1992; Ogilvie & Mitchell, 1995; Widdows et al., 1995a, Widdows et al., 1995b; Newell, 1999), and other invertebrates (Monakov, 1998).
In aquatic ecosystems, the problem of the control of the organisms of the lower trophic level (algae) is of outstanding importance because it is relevant to the problem of eutrophication. Also, control mechanisms are important in better understanding the problem of algal blooms, including the toxic algae blooms. To avoid over-simplification, we should realize that there are many factors that regulate the abundance of algal populations; top-down control is only one of them.
Many species of invertebrates of both plankton and benthos belong to the higher trophic level as compared with algae and cyanobacteria of phytoplankton. As for zooplankton species and their filter-feeding activity, an important body of information was presented and analyzed in (Sushchenya, 1975; Gutelmaher, 1986). Filtering activity of benthic species has also been studied (e.g., Alimov, 1981; Ostroumov et al., 1997, 1998).
In this paper we focus on some species of invertebrates of benthos, which are filter-feeders and in this capacity contribute to the top-down control of phytoplankton.
2. ROLE OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES IN FILTERING WATER AND RESULTING PHYTOPLANKTON GRAZING: FILTER-FEEDERS
The diversity of benthic organisms that filter water and remove algal cell and other particulate matter is broad. Filter-feeders inhabit the bottom of both freshwater and marine ecosystems. To facilitate broader general conclusions, in this paper we will consider both freshwater and marine organisms. The range of filter-feeders includes sponges, polychaetes, molluscs, echinoderms, larvae of many insects, ascidians, and some other invertebrates.
There are many examples of massive scale water filtering by benthos (e.g., Table 2; see also: Alimov, 1981; Ostroumov & Fedorov, 1999). It was shown that in some man-made reservoirs the total volume of water is filtered by benthic bivalves 2-24 times annually (e.g., Konstantinov, 1979). In a shallow lake in New Zealand the total volume is filtered during a time period of less than 2 days (Ogilvie & Mitchell, 1995). Equally massive filtering activity was discovered for the benthic sponges in the coastal waters of Lake Baikal which stores 22, 995 km3 of superb clean water (for comparison, the amount of the annual world consumption of freshwater was 3, 240 km3, and the annual freshwater withdrawal in Europe was 359 km3, in North and Central America 697 km3; the data for year 1987) (World Resources 1995-1995).
As a result of water filtering, algal cells are removed from the water column. It is important that some filter-feeders (e.g., bivalves) remove more algae than they need for feeding purposes. Excessive amounts of algae biomass and other particulate matter are excreted in the form of pellets (to distinguish them from regular faeces they are called pseudofaeces) which are larger in size than the algal cells and therefore they settle to the bottom rapidly. The amount of pseudofaeces may exceed the amount of the assimilated food manyfold. As a result, the total activity of bivalve molluscs in removing algal biomass from the water column and in making water clearer is far beyond just the trophic needs of bivalves.
The total weight of organic matter that is removed from a water column and deposited as bottom sediments is measured as high as kilograms per m2 per year. E.g., in the ecosystem of the man-made reservoir Volgogradskoe, the amount of the formerly suspended matter that was removed by molluscs from the water column and finally sedimented was 8.3 kg m-2 annually (Kondratiev, 1976; cited in Konstantinov, 1979). For the entire reservoir that is located in the center of the largest European river, the amount of sedimented matter was as high as 29 million tons.
3. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF XENOBIOTICS AND POLLUTANTS: A DECREASE IN WATER FILTRATION AND ASSOCIATED PHYTOPLANKTON GRAZING
Man-made chemicals can produce strong inhibition of water filtering by benthic molluscs or impair the normal pattern of opening bivalves which is needed to maintain the efficient filtration of water. Some examples of those effects are given in Table 3. More examples could be found in literature (e.g., Stuijfzand, 1995; Ostroumov, 1998). The experiments were usually conducted using some phytoplankton species as the organism that is being removed from the water column during the filtration experiment. Thus, in experiments with bivalve Mytilus edulis, the algae Isochrysis galbana are often used (Donkin et al., 1997; Ostroumov et al., 1997; 1998). In our experiments with M. galloprovincialis (see below) we have observed a xenobiotic-induced decrease in grazing phytoplankton cells of Monochrysis lutheri and Dunaliella viridis. In our experiments with freshwater bivalves Unio tumidus and U. pictorum, we described some pollutant-induced inhibition of the removal of green algae Scenedesmus quadricauda and cyanobacteria Synechocystis.
The major part of our experiments were done in the laboratory. Under field conditions, it was described that in polluted habitats the biomass and vitality of bivalves declined (Zaika, 1992), which means that their contribution to water filtering is negatively affected. It was possible to develop an integrative parameter, Scope for Growth (SFG) which enables the scientist to estimate the total amount of energy available for the population of mussels for its growth and reproduction (after deduction of the amount of energy is lost during respiration etc.) (Widdows et al., 1995a, 1995b). It was shown that in terms of the entire populations, in polluted habitats the reduced filtration and reduced intake of energy from digested plankton (and seston as a whole) led to the fact that SFG was reduced.
4. MORE SPECIFIC EXAMPLES AND NEW DATA: INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF SURFACTANTS
We have initiated a systematic study of the effects of another class of aquatic pollutants, namely surfactants, on the water-filtering activity of bivalves and on the resulting removal of algal cells from the water column.
Among the various organic chemicals that are entering the natural environment in large amounts (Yablokov & Ostroumov, 1983, 1985, 1991), surfactants play a significant role (Ostroumov, 1986; 1990; 1991; 1994 a; 1994b; Marcomini et al., 1988; Quiroga et al., 1989; Granmo et al, 1991; Fernandez et al., 199; Lewis, 1991; Takada & Ishiwatari, 1991; Chalaux et al., 1992; Terzic & Ahel, 1993). It was shown that surfactants produce negative and sometimes also stimulatory effects on cyanobacteria (Waterbury & Ostroumov, 1994), green algae (e.g., Goryunova & Ostroumov, 1986), diatoms (Ostroumov & Maertz-Wente, 1991), plant seedlings (Ostroumov, 1986; 1990; 1991; Nagel et al., 1987; Maximov et al., 1988; Telitchenko & Ostroumov, 1990), shrimp (Drewa et al., 1988), Daphnia magna and D. pulex (e.g., Maki & Bishop, 1979; Martinez et al., 1989), freshwater amphipods (Pantani et al., 1995), rotifers (Kartasheva & Ostroumov, 1998), fish (e.g., Versteeg & Shorter, 1992; Malcolm et al., 1995). Some data on the effects of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) on Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk (Bressan et al., 1989; Marin et al., 1993), Mytilus edulis (Granmo, 1972) and some other marine benthic species (Marin et al., 1991) are available. However, almost nothing was known about the effects of alkylsulfates, nonionic surfactants (derivatives of nonylphenols), and some other surfactants as well as detergents on the filtering activity of Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, Crassostrea gigas, Unio tumidus, and U. pictorum.
The purpose of the experimental part of this work was to obtain data on the effects of some surfactants and surfactant-containing products including detergents, on the ability of bivalves (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, Unio tumidus, and U. pictorum) to filter water and remove algal or other cells from it.
Freshwater mussels Unio sp. were collected in the Moscow River. Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected at the Black Sea. Crassostrea gigas were grown at a mariculture farm (the Black Sea, Institute of Biology of Southern Seas NANU). M. edulis were collected at the Exmouth estuary and kept in tanks with aeration , water flow and periodic automatic imitation of low tide (water was removed out of tanks for 3 h every day) (Dr. Donkin’s participation and help in the work with M. edulis is acknowledged).
The temperature in experiments with M. galloprovincialis and C. gigas was mostly 22-27 C, in the experiments with Unio sp. 18-20 C. The cell removal and the cell density during the filtration by molluscs was measured using Hitachi 200-20 spectrophotometer (experiments with Unio sp.) and SF-26 (LOMO) spectrophotometer (experiments with M. galloprovincialis and C. gigas). In experiments with M. edulis (temperature 16 C), the number of cells per unit of volume was measured using the Coulter counter ( Coulter Electronics, model Industrial D). When a sample of filtered water without adding algae was used, the Coulter count was usually below 200.
The clearance rate (CR) was calculated according to Widdows & Salkeld (1993) using the following equation:
CR (l h-1) = (Volume of water e.g. 2 l) x (loge C1 — logeC2)/time interval in h
where C1 and C2 are cell concentrations at the beginning and end of each time increment (e.g. 0.5 h).
Statistical analysis was performed using EXCEL software. For linear regression analysis, an option was used which gives an opportunity to fix the intercept at a predetermined value.
Several chemicals were used. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (molecular mass 288.38) was purchased from Fluka. The purity was > 99% (assayed by GC, analysis number 332533/1 395). Triton X-100 (TX100) (x = 9-10 ethoxy units, H2O < 1 %, residue on ignition, 0.2%, analysis number 43306/1 795) was purchased also from Fluka. Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TDTMA, molecular mass 336.4) was purchased from Sigma (St.Louis, Missouri, 63178 USA; lot 55H1322). Detergents used were available commercially.
Results of the experimentation were as following.
Freshwater bivalves, Unio tumidus and U. pictorum removed planktonic cells from water. The ability to do so was inhibited by surfactants of several types (Table 4), including TDTMA, and TX100 .
A marine species, M. galloprovincialis, was also efficient in removing from water cells of phytoplankton and unicellular organisms in general. Several surfactants as well as detergents which contain surfactants inhibited this ability of M. galloprovincialis (Table 4). The chemicals tested included surfactants TDTMA, SDS, and several detergents, such as Tide-Lemon, Lotos-Extra, Losk-Universal.
In experiments with M. edulis, after one hour of filtering, in the control set (clean water) the number of algal cells per unit of volume decreased to almost 5.6% of the initial level, which is a good example of how efficiently bivalves can control planktonic populations (Table 5). This is in accord with the large amount of data on the significant filtration rates of bivalves (Alimov, 1981; Monakov, 1998) and their impact on ecosystems (Zaika, 1992). In the important series of measurements, in the control beakers (filtration of unpolluted water) the number of algal cells decreased by a factor of 15.98, while in the beakers with SDS (1 mg l–1) the number of cells decreased by a factor of 7.93. Thus, the algal cell density in control was half that in the system at the initial concentration of 1 mg l–1. The difference increased by the end of the experiment.
When the initial concentration of SDS was 2 mg l–1, a substantial difference from the control set was observed after the first half-hour period (Table 6). After 65 min of filtering, the algal cell density in the control set was almost 1/3 that contained in the system with SDS.
Further increase of the initial concentration of SDS up to 4 mg l–1 caused a dramatic 3-times increase of the cell density over that in the control set after only 35 min of filtering. In 65-min of filtering, the difference was 6-fold, and following 95-min filtering – over 14-fold.
At the initial concentration of SDS 5 mg l–1, the difference between systems with and without SDS was over 16-fold after 125 min of filtering.
It was possible to calculate the clearance rate (CR), using a standard formula widely accepted in the literature (Donkin et al. 1989; 1991; Widdows & Salkeld, 1993).
The summary of the inhibitory effects shows, with a few exceptions, two general trends:
1) an increase in the initial concentration of SDS in the range of 0.5 to 5 mg l–1 gave rise to an the increase in the inhibitory effect on CR (Table 7);
2) at any given concentration of SDS, the highest effect took place during the first 30-min period, with some decrease in the inhibitory effect by the end of the experiment.
The latter trend, however, was not paralleled by a mitigation of the effect on the residual algal cell density in the water. When the cell density was considered, the difference from the control was maximal by the end of the experiment.
Using another chemical, a non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100, we obtained similar data with EC50 close to that of SDS (Table 8). At a concentration of 4 mg l–1, the inhibition of the clearance rate during the time period of 30 min after the beginning of the experiment was almost 10-fold, and during the later period of time, the inhibition was about 5-fold.
The data obtained in our study showed that the filtering activity of mussels demonstrated a more sensitive response than some other biotests we had used in our experiments in bioassaying SDS, including green algae (Goryunova & Ostroumov, 1986) and plant seedlings (Nagel et al., 1987). The filtering activity of mussels was also more sensitive to SDS than some of the traditional lethal biotests with aquatic invertebrates and fish which had been applied for studies of LAS and alkyl sulfates (Sivak et al., 1982; Ostroumov, 1991).
It is noteworthy that the inhibitory effect of SDS on CR was developed within a rather narrow range of SDS concentrations (1 to 5 mg l–1). That could be in accord with a hypothesis that the decrease in CR is at least in part the result of a behavioural response of mussels.
Our data on effects of SDS are in good agreement with the results obtained by other authors who studied effects of another anionic surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) on filtering rate. It was shown that in experiments with exposure for 48 h and 96 h the filtration rate of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was reduced when concentration of dissolved LAS was higher than 1.5 mg l–1 (Bressan et al., 1989). In our experiments the biotest was slightly more sensitive as we exposed the animals to the surfactant for 1.5 h prior to beginning measurements and observed some inhibition at the initial concentration of 1 mg l–1.
Bressan et al. (1989) studied also effects of LAS on the growth of mussels and on mortality and spermatozoids of freshwater bivalve molluscs. They observed some decrease in the increment of length of the major axis of the shell of mussels at concentrations of LAS as low as 0.25 and 0.5 mg l–1, but the effect required up to 70 days to be observed. No significant effects were found within 30 days of their experiments. The length of time that was necessary to reveal the effect was a limitation of the technique, however it was impressive to observe almost a 2-fold decrease in growth when the chronic experiment with a relatively low level of LAS (0.25 mg l–1 ) lasted for 160 days and more.
In a parallel experiment the same authors observed a 30% increase in the respiration of LAS-treated (220 days, 0.25 mg l–1 ) young mussels (Bressan et al., 1989). Unfortunately, they did not specify what they called young mussels.
Some decrease in filtering rate was observed in another set of experiments when the concentration of LAS was 0.25 mg l–1 , but the duration of the surfactant treatment was much longer (220 days) than in our experiment, and the size of mussels was again not specified (Bressan et al., 1989). Also, they have shown that, at a concentration of 1 mg l–1, LAS inhibited the filtration rate after 7 days of exposure. It seems important that in our experiments we observed effects after only 1.5 hours of exposure to the anionic surfactant.
The LC50 (48 h) was about 40 mg l–1 and LC50 (96 h) was about 1.7 mg l–1 (Bressan et al., 1989), which was much lower than in the case of freshwater bivalves Anodonta cygnea and Unio elongatulus. For the latter two species, LC50 (96 h) was about 200 mg l–1 (Bressan et al, 1989). The mobility of spermatozoa of A. cygnea was almost completely inhibited at a concentration of LAS equal to 20 mg l–1.
Measurements of CR were used to quantify the toxic effects of chemicals and to study QSAR (Donkin & Widdows, 1990) for various chemicals, including alkanes and phenyl alkanes (Donkin et al., 1991) as well as such aromatics as toluene, naphthalene, n-propylbenzene, 1-chloronaphthalene, biphenyl etc. (Donkin et al., 1989). Two xenobiotics, including an organotin compound, inhibited the fitration rate by Dressena polymorpha and Crenomytilus grayanus (Mitin, 1984).
The filtering activity of not only bivalves, but also of other filter-feeders is vulnerable to the inhibition by surfactants. In experiments with rotifers Brachionus angularis Gosse, we have shown that TDTMA inhibited their filtration rate and the removal of cells of Chlorella sp. from the water (Kartasheva & Ostroumov, 1998). At a TDTMA concentration of 0.5 mg l–1, the average efficiency of filtration was 58.5% of that in control.
However important these kinds of studies of CR are, it is also important to consider the general consequences of a decrease in the CR for the ecosystem.
The role of the filtering activity of mussels is connected with their high population densities. It was estimated that at Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, mussels represented about 77% (11 kg m -2) of the total community dry weight (Nixon et al., 1971), and numbers of the same order of magnitude were reported for other locations (Seed & Suchanek, 1992). Taking into account that, in our experiments, one mussel with a total wet weight about 8.5 g filtered over 1 L of water per hour, it is easy to estimate that, at high abundancy, a mussel community may filter over 100 L water per hour per 1 m2 of the sea bottom.
A comparison of the tables for residual cell densities and CR for specific concentrations of surfactants shows that even a small decrease in CR produces a large difference in the residual cell density. The latter parameter may be considered as a model for any kind of particles which are being removed from the seawater by mussel filtering. In this way we may predict a huge decline in the natural ability of benthic communities to purify natural water when the water is polluted by surfactants as well as by other chemicals reducing the CR.
Changes (inhibition) of the filtering activity of bivalves might have many consequences in changing many parameters and processes in ecosystems, which were considered in more detail in (Ostroumov et al., 1997; 1998; Ostroumov, 1998).
Those considerations show that the inhibition of CR has consequences not limited by the prosperity of the mussel population, but that it is important for the state of the marine and estuarine ecosystems in much broader terms. Prospects of chemical-induced inhibition of water filtration by bivalves poses some ecological hazards in view of the role of bivalves in eutrophication control. The latter was studied in the case of the ecosystem of Chesapeake Bay (the Atlantic coast of the U.S.A.) (Newell et al., 1999).
5. SENSITIVITY OF PLANKTON GRAZERS TO XENOBIOTICS – ANALOGOUS EVIDENCE FOR ZOOPLANKTON
Analysis of the specific LC50 for Cladocera and various species of algae shows that in case of many pollutants Cladocera are more sensitive than algae. According to the data disseminated at the recent workshop in Netherlands (9-12 December 1999, Den Helder, TNO; participants of the research project: M. Scholten, R. Jak, B. Clement, E. Foekema, P.Hernandez, K.Kaag, H. van Dokkum, M. Smit), in the case of the following pesticides, species of Cladocera (mainly Daphnia magna, D. pulex, Ceriodaphnia dubia) are more sensitive: anilazin, benomyl, bentazon, cyfluthrin, dimethoat, lindan, maneb, zineb, and ziram. In case of several pesticides, it was directly shown that the inhibitory effects on feeding were observed at lower concentrations, than the concentrations which induced mortality. EC50 (effects on feeding within 4-24 h) were lower than LC50 (24-48 h) for endosulfan, diazinon, methyl parathion, lindan, and dichlobenil (according to the data distributed at the same workshop). In case of atrazine, a concentration of 1.6 mg l–1 within 10 min produced 50% reduction in feeding, which shows again that feeding activity is inhibited at concentrations lower than those inducing mortality: LC50 (48 h) was 9.88 mg l–1.
Also, NOEC (No observable effect concentration) was the basis for comparing sensitivities of Cladocera and various species of algae to pesticides. In case of the following chemicals a higher sensitivity of Cladocera was found: azinfos-methyl, cyromazin, diazinon, dimethoat, endosulfan, fenpropathrin, malathion, mecoprop, propoxur, trifluralin, and some other pesticides.
All these data as well as the new evidence in the experiments conducted at TNO during the project led by Dr. M. Scholten (see Table 1) are in accord with the concept that pollutants may impair top-down control of algae. This conclusion is analogous to the conclusion made by us on the basis of our data for benthic filter-feeders.
6. SYNOPTIC OVERVIEW AND GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
Some benthic organisms, including spongi, polychets, bivalves, echinoderms, larvae of insects, ascidia and some others proved to be efficient organisms in filtering water and thereby in reducing the amount of particulate matter suspended in the water. Benthic filter-feeders remove from the surrounding water various suspended particles including algal cells. By doing so, they contribute to natural mechanisms that keep algal populations under some control. That type of top-down control under some circumstances might become especially important. The problem of algal blooms in the context of eutrophication is increasing attention to all mechanisms of control of algal populations including the control by virtue of water filtering by benthic filter-feeders, including bivalves. Some pollutants were shown to be efficient inhibitors that decrease water filtering and resulting grazing phytoplankton. Those chemicals produced a decrease in removal of algae from water column by bivalves.
The author initiated systematic studies of effects of surfactants and detergents on filtering activity and removal of algae by freshwater and marine bivalves. Marine and freeshwater bivalves Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and Unio sp. are efficient in removing unicellular organisms from water in result of their filtration activity. They are capable of drastically reducing the amount of cells of phytoplankton in water. This is an important mechanism contributing to natural control of algal populations in ecosystems. This regulatory mechanism is vulnerable to aquatic pollutants as exemplified by surfactants and detergents. New data are obtained and presented in this paper on how surfactants (anionic, non-ionic, and cationic ones) and surfactant-containing detergents inhibit the ability of marine and freshwater bivalves to remove cells of algae and cyanobacteria from water. On the basis of our new data, the final conclusion is that the new evidence support the views proposed in (Ostroumov, 1998; 1999; 2000c; 2000e) about the vulnerability of the filtration activity of invertebrates (both planktonic and benthic animals) to some pollutants, including surfactants. Our data and general conclusion are in accord with the idea that pollutants can induce reduction in grazing efficiency of benthic and planktonic invertebrates.
We consider the studies of inhibitory effects of chemicals on fiter-feeders as an effective approach to elucidating the details of filter-feeding and associated removal of phytoplankton from the water column. The mechanisms and rates of plankton removal are of utmost importance for controlling levels of plankton which are the key parameters in processes of eutrophication and algal blooms.
Water filtering activity of invertebrates is part of water self-purification in ecosystems. The self-purification of water is one of preconditions for the sustainable use of water resources. Therefore, the vulnerability of filter-feeders to aquatic pollutants (including surfactants and detergents) leads to a potential threat to the sustainable use of aquatic resources in situations when the ability of ecosystems to purify water is inhibited by pollutants.
In sum, on the basis of the data presented here and in some of our publications (Ostroumov, 1998; 1999; 2000a; Ostroumov et al., 1997, 1998; Ostroumov & Fedorov, 1999), the following inferences are to be made:
1. Surfactants inhibit the filtering ability of marine and freshwater bivalves with a drastic effect on the amount of particulate material (modelled here by algal cells) left in the water.
2. When considering the environmental importance of surfactants and detergents (and of a broader range of xenobiotics and pollutants as well), the ramifications relevant to disturbance of the natural ability of the ecosystem to control phytoplankton populations should be taken into account.
3. Our new data are in accordance with the opinion (Ostroumov, 1990; 1991; 2000b; 2000c; 2000d; Telitchenko & Ostroumov, 1990; Yablokov & Ostroumov, 1991) that surfactants, if being discharged into the environment at substancial rates, might, under some circumstances and in some ecosystems, become more significant as environmental pollutants than it was thought before.
4. We make the prediction that many new examples are to be found of pollutants (both organic and inorganic) which inhibit filtration rate of filter-feeders (not only bivalves, but also other benthic and plankton organisms) and by doing so reduce the ability of invertebrates to control unicellular plankton populations. We predict that new examples are to be found of pollutants which inhibit the ability of invertebrates to control eutrophication.
5. Sustainable use of resources of aquatic ecosystems requires as an important pre-condition the efficient functioning of the ecosystems towards self-regulating and water self-purification. This pre-requisite includes normal functioning of top-down control exercised by the organisms at the higher levels of the trophic chains of ecosystems.
6. Studies of inhibitory effects of chemicals on the top-level organisms (e.g., grazers of plankton, including benthic filter-feeders) are a useful approach in obtaining information on the top-down control in trophic chains.
LIST OF TABLES:
Table 1. Top-down control in various natural and experimental systems (examples).
Table 2. Water-filtering activity of benthic organisms in some ecosystems (examples).
Table 3. Xenobiotics and contaminants that were shown to inhibit water-filtering activity of bivalves.
Table 4. New data on the inhibitory effect of surfactants and products that contain surfactants on the filtration efficiency of bivalve molluscs.
Table 5. Decrease in Isochrysis galbana cell density (per 0.5 ml) during filtering by Mytilus edulis in clean water (control beakers, A) and at 1 mg l–1 SDS (experimental beakers, B).
Table 6. Effect of SDS (2 mg l–1) on the efficiency of water filtering measured as the number of cells of Isochrysis galbana (per 0.5 mL) in the water after the 30-min period of filtering by Mytilus edulis.
Table 7. Inhibition (%) of the clearance rate (CR) of Isochrysis galbana during filtering by Mytilus edulis at various concentrations of SDS (after Ostroumov et al., 1998, with some changes).
Table 8. Effect of Triton X-100 on the clearance rate during filtering algae Isochrysis galbana by mussels Mytilus edulis (after Ostroumov et al., 1998, with some changes).
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Excellent citation. Aquatic ecology paper was cited in U.S.A., Australia, Italy, U.K., Brazil, Uruguay, etc.

 

Excellent citation. Aquatic ecology paper. This paper was cited in U.S.A., Australia, Italy, United Kingdom, Brazil, Uruguay, and other countries

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curtailing invasions than are eradication or control measures. Of key importance in the 

Changes in the immune response and metabolic fingerprint of the mussel,< i> Mytilus edulis</i>(Linnaeus) in response to lowered salinity and physical stress

JA Bussell, EA Gidman, DR Causton… – Journal of Experimental …, 2008 – Elsevier

Mussels, such as Mytilus edulis, are common keystone species on open coasts and in

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  • a School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge, Anglesey, LL59 5AB, UK
  • b Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Trophic Interaction Facility, Cledwyn Building, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion, SY23 3DD, UK
  • c Centre for Applied Marine Science, Marine Science Laboratories, Ynys Faelog, Menai Bridge, LL59 5AB, UK
  • d Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Orton Building, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 2UP, UK

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Tags:

filter-feeders. Aquatic ecology, marine biology,  invertebrates, ecosystems, suspension feeders, biological oceanography, hydrobiology, mussels, bivalves, Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis

Innovative articles, fresh ideas: in one of the best scientific journals of Russian Academy of Sciences, in English. Major innovations, discoveries explained in 1-to-3-line annotations.

Innovative articles, fresh ideas: in one of the best  scientific journals  of Russian Academy of Sciences, in English. Major innovations, discoveries explained in 1-to-3-line annotations.

The area of science: ecology, environmental science, water quality, water safety.

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/01/innovative-articles-fresh-ideas-in-one.html

Paradigm-shifting articles published in a unique scientific journal. 

Topics: environmental sciences, ecology, ecosystems, water quality.

Title of the journal: Doklady Biological Sciences

ISSN PRINT: 0012-4966. ISSN ONLINE: 1608-3105.

Language: English.

AvailabilityAll of these papers are available online via the Internet service Springerlink. Almost all of the libraries of the major U.S. universities have the paper copies of this journal.

Explanation of the title of the journal: the word ‘Doklady’ in Russian means ‘Reports’ or, in this context, ‘Proceedings’ or ‘Research communications’. This word came from the Russian title of the best scientific journal ‘Doklady Academii Nauk’ which means ‘Proceedings of Academy of Sciences’ or ‘Research Communications to Academy of Sciences’. This journal is indexed by Web of Science and PubMed.
How the journal looks:

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Examples of the innovative papers in this journal, on environm. science, selected:

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The Concept of Aquatic Biota as a Labile and Vulnerable Component of the Water Self-Purification System,  Doklady Biological Sciences, vol. 372, no. 2, pp. 286-289, in English. Author: Ostroumov, S.A.

Full text online free:

in English: http://www.academia.edu/782873

in English: http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069991

Citation, examples: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/01/citation-of-concept-of-aquatic-biota-as.html

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New Definitions of the Concepts and Terms Ecosystem and Biogeocenosis. – Doklady Biological Sciences.
2002, v.383, No.1-6; pp.141-143. Full text free: www.scribd.com/doc/49065580;

citation, and comments on the innovation in this article see:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/01/new-definitions-of-concepts-and-terms.html

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                 This paper formulated a fundamentally new solution to the problem of selecting criteria for identification and assessing environmental hazards of chemical pollutants, toxicants; the paper explains why the currently accepted set of criteria is non-efficient and leads to mistakes;               Reference:

Criteria of ecological hazards due to anthropogenic effects on the biota: searching for a system. – Dokl. Biol. Sci. (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2000; 371: 204-206. Doklady Biological Sciences: ISSN PRINT: 0012-4966. ISSN ONLINE: 1608-3105. http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs371p204criteria/www.scribd.com/doc/49088234;

Why this paper is useful: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60891549/;

Blog post on a closely related paper in Rivista di Biologia:

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A closely related paper: A new set of criteria in order to answer the question was formulated in this paper: is a given chemical substance hazardous to environment or not?    Reference:  Ostroumov S.A.  Anthropogenic effects on the biota: towards a new system of principles and criteria for analysis of ecological hazards. – Riv. Biol. (Rivista di Biologia) 2003,  96(1):159-169. Review.

Full text free:

key words: innovation, new solution, criteria,  assessment, environmental, ecological, hazards, danger, chemical, pollutants, toxicants,

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                  This paper is the first publication that considered an aquatic ecosystem as an analog of a bioreactor, with some specific features that were described in the paper.This paper gave a revolutionary new insight into the core functions and identity of ecosystem as a bioreactor to maintain water quality. Reference:    

An aquatic ecosystem: a large-scale diversified bioreactor with a water self-purification function. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2000. Vol. 374, P. 514-516. 

Full text free:  www.scribd.com/doc/49065542http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069997;

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                  This paper was the first that discovered the multi-faceted role of the entire broad range of aquatic organisms of all main groups of biodiversity in water self-purification. The conclusion was made that the complex of all the organisms, the entire biota is a unique (both changeable and fragile) part of the mechanism of ecosystem service to improve water quality;           Reference:

The Concept of Aquatic Biota as a Labile and Vulnerable Component of the Water Self-Purification System. – Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 372, 2000, pp. 286–289. Full text free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069991;

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                  It is the first paper that reported two new experimental results. First, the new author’s experiments measured the biota-driven fluxes of the matter and chemical elements in a model ecosystem.  Second, the authors got another innovative result: a discovery of effects of chemical pollutants. Namely, these biota-driven flows of the chemical elements were decreased by a chemical pollutant exemplified by a synthetic surfactant:           Reference:

S. A. Ostroumov, and M. P. Kolesnikov. Biocatalysis of Matter Transfer in a Microcosm Is Inhibited by a Contaminant: Effects of a Surfactant on Limnea stagnalis. [Lymnaea stagnalis] – Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 373, 2000, pp. 397–399. Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 373, No. 2, 2000, pp. 278–280. Full text free:  www.scribd.com/doc/49069985;

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                  This paper discovered new mechanisms triggering eutrophication and as a result, a new solution to the problem of eutrophication: Reference:      

The Synecological Approach to the Problem of Eutrophication. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001,  v. 381, No. 1-6; pp. 559-562.

Full text free:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065550/;  DOI: 10.1023/A:1013378505630;

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               First measurements, first publication: New quantitative data on how aquatic mollusks drive fluxes of the chemical elements. The reference is: 

Ostroumov S. A., M. P. Kolesnikov. Pellets of Some Mollusks in the Biogeochemical Flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v. 379, p. 378-381

Full text free:

www.scribd.com/doc/49065604;  http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730;    PMID: 12918380;   DOI: 10.1023/A:1011620817764;

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                Modernization and refreshing of the most fundamental concepts, notions, and terminology of ecology.         Reference:

New Definitions of the Concepts and Terms Ecosystem and Biogeocenosis; – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2002, v. 383, No. 1-6; pp. 141-143.

Full text free:

www.scribd.com/doc/49065580; DOI: 10.1023/A:1015393924967;

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                New logical conceptualization of how all biodiversity of the aquatic organisms functions together toward up-grading water quality: 

On the Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems: Elements of the Theory. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2004, v. 396, No.1-6; pp. 206-211.

Full text free:

                 New approach and innovative methodology to experimentally analyze interactions of organisms:           Reference: 

Inhibitory Analysis of Regulatory Interactions in Trophic Webs. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v. 377, No. 1-6; pp. 139-141.

Full text free:

www.scribd.com/doc/49065567;  DOI: 10.1023/A:1019218026198;

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              Discovery of a new type of negative effects of chemical pollutants on aquatic organisms and ecosystems.   Reference:

Effect of Amphiphilic Chemicals on Filter-Feeding Marine Organisms. – Doklady Biological Sciences; 2001, v. 378, No. 1-6; pp. 248-250. Full text free:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065593http://www.scribd.com/doc/59417067

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                 The first publication that proposed used the new terminology: two-level synergism; synecological summation. As a result, a new fundamental concept and terminology were introduced into environmental science, and ecology: Two-Level Synergism, Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects:     

Ostroumov  S. A. The Hazard of a Two-Level Synergism of Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects.  – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v. 380, No. 1-6; pp. 499-501. 

Full text free:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065634/;   DOI: 10.1023/A:1012348127085

 

                 It is the first time that some negative effect of chemical pollutant (synthetic surfactant) on feeding activity of rotifers was discovered:          

Ostroumov S.A., N. Walz; R. Rusche. Effect of a Cationic Amphiphilic Compound on Rotifers – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2003, v. 390, No. 1-6; pp. 252-255;

Full text free:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/52634169/;           www.scribd.com/doc/52634169/3-Effect-of-a-cationic-amphiphilic-compound-on-rotifersDBN; DOI: 10.1023/A:1024417903077;

 

               It is the first discovery of the new aspect of fundamental cause-effect link between the conservation of biodiversity and protection of water quality.  This paper is the first that stresses that this is a two-way link:

Biodiversity Protection and Quality of Water: The Role of Feedbacks in Ecosystems. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2002, v. 382, No. 1-6; pp. 18-21;

Full text free:

DOI: 10.1023/A:1014465220673;

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                 The first identification of a new type of negative effect of chemical pollutants: Reference:

A New Type of Effect of Potentially Hazardous Substances: Uncouplers of Pelagial–Benthal Coupling. –  Doklady Biological Sciences, 2002. v.383, No. 1-6; pp. 127-130.

Full text free:


                Modernization of the system of principles for conservation of biodiversity;

Formulation of a new relevant principle: conservation and protection of a key aspect of ecosystem’s service in up-grading water quality; an innovative suggestion to establish a special type of protected aquatoria to protect organisms that filter and purify water:      Reference:

System of Principles for Conservation of the Biogeocenotic Function and the Biodiversity of Filter-Feeders. –   Doklady Biological Sciences 2002, v.383, No.1-6; pp.147-150. Full text free:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911862; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065586;

DOI: 10.1023/A:1015398125876;


                Innovative analysis of the factors that create environmental balance as related to plankton, which in turn is relevant to proper management of water resources, and water quality sustainability:   

Imbalance of Factors Providing Control of Unicellular Plankton Populations Exposed to Anthropogenic Impact. –  Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.379, No.1-6; pp.341-343.

www.scribd.com/doc/49065596; DOI: 10.1023/A:1011600213221;

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                New fundamental concept: a new type of joint man-made effects on biological community and ecosystems was identified. The author of this article in the journal ‘Doklady Biological Sciences’, Dr. S.A.Ostroumov, proposed to name this concept as: Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects:   

Responses of Unio tumidus to Mixed Chemical Preparations and the Hazard of Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.380, No.1-6; pp.492-495;  Full text free:  www.scribd.com/doc/49065621/; DOI: 10.1023/A:1012344026176;

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                A new contribution to the scientific basis of phytoremediation and phytotechnology for water treatment: Reference:         

Lazareva E. V.; Ostroumov S.A. Accelerated decrease in surfactant concentration in the water of a microcosm in the presence of plants: Innovations for phytotechnology. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2009, v.425, No.1; pp.180-182.  Full text free:  http://www.scribd.com/doc/60795487/;

in English:   DOI: 10.1134/S0012496609020276;

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               The first discovery of the negative effect of the synthetic chemical pollutant (surfactant) on filter- feeding of zooplankton, and negative effects of the chemical of water filtering: Vorozhun I. M., S. A. Ostroumov. On studying the hazards of pollution of the biosphere: effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) on planktonic filter-feeders. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2009, Vol. 425, pp. 133–134.  The journal:  ISSN 0012-4966.

Full text free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/45914806/;        

DOI: 10.1134/S0012496609020136;  http://www.springerlink.com/content/p7754h672w814m30/;

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                It is the first paper in which a discovery of a new type of environmental hazards from chemical pollutants was made: namely, the hazards of a decrease in vital function of healthy aquatic ecosystems which maintain the proper level of cleanness (purity) of water, and improve water quality:

Identification of a new type of ecological hazard of chemicals: inhibition of processes of ecological remediation. – Doklady Biological Sciences. 2002. 385: 377-379. In Eng.; ISSN 0012-4966. DOI 10.1023/A:1019929305267;

 


It is a first paper in which a new solution to the eternal and painful problem of need for proper objective criteria for identification of and assessing environmental hazards of chemical pollutants:     Reference:

Criteria of ecological hazards due to anthropogenic effects on the biota: searching for a system. – Dokl. Biol. Sci. (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2000; 371: 204-206.  Full text free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/49088234; http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs371p204criteria/;

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                It is a first paper in which a new aspect and facet of the essence and identity of ecosystem was discovered and analyzed. In this paper, it was shown that ecosystem has attributes of a bioreactor:  Reference:

An aquatic ecosystem: a large-scale diversified bioreactor with a water self-purification function. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2000. Vol. 374, P. 514-516.  Full text free:

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                                  It is the first paper in which it was clearly shown that aquatic biota (the sum of organisms) is the core part of the ecological mechanism of water self-purification in healthy aquatic ecosystems. The important attributes of this core part of the mechanism are: 1) lability; 2) vulnerability to anthropogenic impact. The author formulated a new fundamental concept of the complex of organisms of aquatic ecosystem. According to the concept, the biota is a central, labile and vulnerable (to pollutants) part of the ecological mechanism of water self-purification and upgrade of water quality.

Key words: Geoscience, water quality, assessment of biological activity of surfactants, chemical pollution, self-purification of water, aquatic organisms, contaminants, aquatic ecosystems:    

The Concept of Aquatic Biota as a Labile and Vulnerable Component of the Water Self-Purification System. – Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 372, 2000, pp. 286–289. Full text free:  http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs372p286biotalabil/;

Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 372, No. 2, 2000, pp. 279–282. Original Russian Text Copyright © 2000 by Ostroumov.

Self-purification of water is a complex process including physical, chemical, and biological components [1–3]. The vulnerability of different components of the water self-purification system to anthropogenic factors is as yet insufficiently understood. The goal of this work was to review the literature and our own unpublished experimental findings concerning potential vulnerability of the biotic component of the water self-purification system to chemical pollutants.

A new role of biota as a core, labile, vulnerable part of ecosystem and upgrade of water quality. Full text free: www.scribd.com/doc/49069991;

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                 It is the first study in which it was shown that the vital function of aquatic organisms (catalysis of matter transfer, and biogeochemical flows of chemical elements through the water column in the normal ecosystem) is decreased by the chemical pollutant as represented by a synthetic surfactant:      

S. A. Ostroumov and M. P. Kolesnikov. Biocatalysis of Matter Transfer in a Microcosm Is Inhibited by a Contaminant: Effects of a Surfactant on Limnea  [Lymnaea] stagnalis. – Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 373, 2000, pp. 397–399. Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 373, No. 2, 2000, pp. 278–280. Full text free: www.scribd.com/doc/49069985

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                 New fundamental concepts were formulated in the concept:

1) a two-level synergism (a new scientific term);

2) synecological summation  (a new scientific term) of man-made effects.

The Hazard of a Two-Level Synergism of Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects // Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, vol.380, p.499-501;

(Rus. P. 847); two-level synergism; Full text free:  http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065634/;

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                 The first data on discovery that chemical pollutants (detergents and surfactants) decreased the filtration rate by the mass freshwater mollusks, freshwater mussels Unio tumidus. A new type of complex anthropogenic effects on ecosystem was found which the author proposed to name ‘synecological summation’.  Reference:    

Ostroumov S.A. Responses of Unio tumidus to Mixed Chemical Preparations and the Hazard of Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, vol. 380, p. 492-495;  Full text free:  http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065621/; it was above;

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                 The first measurements of the contribution of the pellets of aquatic mollusks to the biogeochemical flows of the chemical elements C, N, P, Si, and Al:  Reference:

S. A. Ostroumov, M. P. Kolesnikov. Pellets of some mollusks in the biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.379, p.378-381; see item 10; Full text free:

www.scribd.com/doc/49065604http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730;


                 The first data on the new negative effects of organic pollutants  – detergents and surfactants – on functioning of marine bivalve mollusks. The first data on how the detergents and surfactants slow down (inhibit) water filtration by those bivalve mollusks,  mussels and oysters which are of huge importance to aquaculture: Reference:

Effect of Amphiphilic Chemicals on Filter-Feeding Marine Organisms. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.378, No.1-6; pp.248-250

Full text free:

www.scribd.com/doc/49065604; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065593http://www.scribd.com/doc/59417067/; DOI: 10.1023/A:1019270825775;

 

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This is the first paper that demonstrated that this species of aquatic plants (macrophytes) is instrumental in decreasing the levels of 4 heavy metals in water in case of multi-metal pollution. It is a significant contribution to creating an innovative green technology of water treatment: Reference:

S. A. Ostroumov, and T. V. Shestakova. Decreasing the measurable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the water of the experimental systems containing Ceratophyllum demersum: The phytoremediation potential. – DOKLADY BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. Volume 428, Number 1 (2009), 444-447;  DOI: 10.1134/S0012496609050159;  Full text online free:

https://sites.google.com/site/9dbs444/decreasing-the-measurable-concentrations-of-cu-zn-cd-and-pb-in-the-water

An example of citation of this paper:

U.S. EPA (U.S.A.): in the EPA’s HERO database [Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)]: cited: Ostroumov S.A., Shestakova T.V. Decreasing the measurable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the water of the experimental systems containing Ceratophyllum demersum: The phytoremediation potential. – Doklady Biological Sciences. 2009, Vol. 428, No. 1, p. 444-447. http://hero.epa.gov/index.cfm?action=search.view&reference_id=362778;

 

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This is the first paper that discovered that in aquatic medium, nanoparticles of metal can be immobilized by aquatic plants (macrophytes). This is a very innovative contribution to our knowledge on nanomaterials. Until this paper next to nothing was known what happens with nanomaterials when they enter the aquatic environment with aquatic organisms: Reference:

S.A. Ostroumov, G.M. Kolesov. The Aquatic Macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum Immobilizes Au Nanoparticles after Their Addition to Water. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2010, Vol. 431, pp. 124–127.   Full text: http://www.scribd.com/doc/45579375; 

The article is indexed by PubMed. It is on SpringerLink. www.springerlink.com/index/J487667871W02H28.pdf; http://www.springerlink.com/content/j487667871w02h28/;

DOI: 10.1134/S0012496610020158;

ISSN 0012-4966, © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010. Translated from: Doklady Akademii Nauk, 2010, Vol. 431, No. 4, pp. 566–569.

Full text free:

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ADDENDUM

Some related and relevant articles in some of the other journals:

 

                It is the first paper in which it was clearly proved that the synthetic chemical, when it pollutes water, produces a dangerous effect on both marine mussels and phytoplankton: it decreases water filtration rate by the mussels, and the normal control of abundance of phytoplankton by the marine mussels, the control which is associated with the filtration of water. Reference:          

 

An Amphiphilic Substance Inhibits the Mollusk Capacity to Filter out Phytoplankton Cells from Water. – Biology Bulletin, 2001, v.28, No.1; pp.95-102.

www.springerlink.com/index/l665628020163255.pdf;

Abstract, in detail: The effect of synthetic anionic surface active substance (SAS) sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 4 mg/l) on the kinetics of water filtration by mussel Mytilus edulis was studied. A suspension of algae Isochrysis galbana was added to the vessel with the mussels, and their filtration activity was measured by counting the concentration of the algae cells in the experimental vessels. Algae concentration was measured every 30 min for an hour and a half. The inhibiting effect on the mollusk filtration rate (FR) was qualitatively described. After the first 30 min filtration at 4 mg/l initial SDS concentration, the cell density was 322% of the control. The inhibiting effect was observed later as well. Due to FR inhibition in the vessels with the above specified initial SDS concentration, the algae cell density was 6.4 and 14.7 times that of the control after 1 and 1.5 h, respectively. Thus, SAS SDS can decrease the natural capacity of aquatic ecosystems for self-purification and disturb other aspects of ecosystem functioning through inhibiting the filtration activity of mussels. The obtained data are discussed in the context of environment and hydrosphere protection from pollution. www.springerlink.com/index/l665628020163255.pdfhttp://www.scribd.com/doc/63444377/;   DOI: 10.1023/A:1026671024000

**

 

A more detailed analysis of the discovery and innovation that was made in the paper above (An aquatic ecosystem: a large-scale diversified bioreactor with a water self-purification function. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2000. 374: 514-516);

A new aspect of the identity of ecosystem was discovered and analyzed: the paper showed that ecosystem has attributes of a bioreactor: Reference:       

Aquatic ecosystem as a bioreactor: water purification and some other functions.  – Riv. Biol. 2004, 97(1): 67-78.

**

           A first and unique paper in which an international team of experts, scientists of three countries formulated a short list of research priorities in ecology and environmental sciences for the current century: Reference:    

Ostroumov S.A., Dodson S.I., Hamilton D., Peterson S.A., Wetzel R.G.  Medium-term and long-term priorities in ecological studies. – Riv. Biol. 2003, 96(2): 327-332.    PMID: 14595906 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]; http://www.scribd.com/doc/48100827/3Rivista-Bio-96-Priorities-2; http://scipeople.com/uploads/materials/4389/3RivistaBio96Priorities2.rtf; www.scribd.com/doc/57124875/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52655707/ ;

**                

A new set of criteria in order to answer the question was formulated in this paper: is a given chemical substance hazardous to environment or not?      

Anthropogenic effects on the biota: towards a new system of principles and criteria for analysis of ecological hazards. – Riv. Biol. (Rivista di Biologia) 2003,  96(1): 159-169. Review.

Full text free: 

http://www.scribd.com/doc/52636721/    PMID: 12852181 [PubMed – indexed; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52636721/3-System-of-Criteria;

**

                 More new data on how an anionic surfactant (detergent) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) decreases the removal of algal cells from aquatic medium by marine bivalve Mytilus edulis: Reference:

[An amphiphilic substance inhibits the mollusk capacity to filter phytoplankton cells from water]. – Izv. Akad. Nauk Ser. Biol. 2001. (1):108-116. Russian. PMID: 11236572 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE];

Full text free:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/63444377/BiolBul2001-1p95-E-an-Amphiphilic-BB95-An-amphiphilic-substance-inhibits;   in Eng, in the form:

**

 

An Amphiphilic Substance Inhibits the Mollusk Capacity to Filter out Phytoplankton Cells from Water. BIOLOGY BULLETIN, Volume 28, Number 1 (2001), 95-102,    DOI: 10.1023/A:1026671024000;

An example of citation of this paper:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/71487249/; University of Cambridge cited the articles written by Dr. S.A.Ostroumov

**

McIvor, A.L. (2004) Freshwater mussels as biofilters. PhD thesis, Dep’t of Zoology, University of Cambridge. http://www.ourearth.co.uk/annamcivor/ref.pdf; The papers that were cited:

(1) Ostroumov, S. A. 2001. An amphiphilic substance inhibits the mollusk capacity to filter out phytoplankton cells from water. Biology Bulletin 28, 95-102. Full text see online free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/63444377/BiolBul2001-1p95-E-an-Amphiphilic-BB95;

(2) Ostroumov, S. A. 2002. Polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and concluding remarks. Hydrobiologia 469, 203-204. Full text see online free:http://www.scribd.com/doc/52627327/2H469p203-Polyfunctional-role-w-Addendum;

 

**
                 It is a first paper in which a synthesis of both authors new experimental data and international literature was made, which led to a new broad picture of the role of biological filtering in self-purification and self-bioremediation of aquatic ecosystems.

 

Biological filtering and ecological machinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems: towards a holistic view. – Riv. Biol. 1998; 91(2):221-232.  http://www.scribd.com/doc/42830557; http://www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/9750710;            PMID: 9857844; PubMed – indexed;

 

**
                 It is the first article in which the new experimental data of the author were analyzed to give new fresh insight into ecological mechanisms of eutrophication and abnormal increase in phytoplankton. Also, new insight in how ecosystem runs water self-purification. A fundamentally new approach and methodology to study top-down control in ecosystems: the first introduction of what the author calls ‘inhibitory analysis’; the paper  presented a new insight in understanding that a decrease in activity of filter-feeders are part of the causes and mechanisms of eutrophication and algal blooms. The paper shows how to identify and measure this new factor which stimulates those negative phenomena; More comment, and about citation of this paper, see: http://www.scribd.com/doc/61179989 

Reference:

Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002, vol. 469, p. 117-129http://www.scribd.com/doc/52598579/;    

DOI: 10.1023/A:1015559123646

**
                The first publication in which a concise presentation is given of the author’s theory of water self-purification. A short list of physical, chemical, and biological processes of water self-purification is given. One of the conclusions is: ‘living organisms are the core component of the multitude of processes of the ecological machinery working towards improving water quality’. Innovative and multifaceted conceptualization of how almost all aquatic organisms (biological community) work together toward making water clear and clean:    

Polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and  concluding remarks. – Hydrobiologia. 2002. V. 469 (1-3): 203-204. http://www.scribd.com/doc/52627327/2H469p203-Polyfunctional-role-w-Addendum;  DOI: 10.1023/A:1015555022737;

An example of citation of this paper:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/71487249/; University of Cambridge cited the articles written by Dr. S.A.Ostroumov

**

McIvor, A.L. (2004) Freshwater mussels as biofilters. PhD thesis, Dep’t of Zoology, University of Cambridge. http://www.ourearth.co.uk/annamcivor/ref.pdf; The papers that were cited:

(1)  Ostroumov, S. A. 2002. Polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and concluding remarks. Hydrobiologia 469, 203-204. Full text see online free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/52627327/2H469p203-Polyfunctional-role-w-Addendum; 

(2)Ostroumov, S. A. 2001. An amphiphilic substance inhibits the mollusk capacity to filter out phytoplankton cells from water. Biology Bulletin 28, 95-102. Full text see online free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/63444377/BiolBul2001-1p95-E-an-Amphiphilic-BB95;

**
                 New facts on how detergents slow down the filtration of water by aquatic organisms (bivalve mussels, oysters and others): Reference:     

Studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filter-feeding bivalves. – Hydrobiologia. 2003. Vol. 500. P.341-344  [including effects of synthetic surfactants TDTMA and SDS on marine bivalves, oysters  Crassostrea gigas]. Extended abstract and some info on citation of this paper: http://www.scribd.com/doc/63898669/;

Full text: http://www.springerlink.com/content/k05884h730t228w4/;

www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/9737871  DOI: 10.1023/A:1024604904065

[From the issue entitled “Aquatic Biodiversity”]

**
                 The first paper that reports experiments that showed that all three main kinds of  synthetic surfactants (detergent chemicals) slow down the filtration of water by marine organisms, filter-feeders (bivalve mussels of the Atlantic Ocean, Mytilus edulis). The 3 main types of surfactants that were studied were representatives of the 3 classes: anionic, cationic, and non-ionic surfactants.     

Ostroumov S.A., Widdows J. Inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes. – Hydrobiologia. 2006. Vol. 556, No.1. P. 381 – 386.

DOI: 10.1007/s10750-005-1200-7; Indexed in Web of science.

**
                A first book that summarizes the author’s 20-year-long studies of new environmental hazards from synthetic detergents, and innovative methods for measuring environmental toxicity (including biotesting with invertebrates, e.g. mollusks and leeches)  and phytotoxicity of chemicals:    

Ostroumov S.A.  Biological Effects of Surfactants. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, London, New York. 2006. 279 p. 

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/toxicity-of-surfactants-toxicity-of.html

http://www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/9744280; http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1527248.Biolo_Eff_of_Surf; http://www.scribd.com/doc/46637373/;  DOI: 10.1201/9781420021295.fmatt

Key words: Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis,  Crassostrea gigas, Unio, Hirudo medicinalis, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Synechococcus, Fagopyrum esculentum, Oryza sativa, seedlings, filter-feeders, oysters, TDTMA, SDS, surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate, detergents, marine mussels, Triton X-100, bioassay,

Chapter 1. Anthropogenic Impacts and Synthetic Surfactants as Pollutants of Aquatic Ecosystems:  DOI: 10.1201/9781420021295.ch1

Chapter 2. Organisms and Methods [that were studied and used in the book to perform bioassay and assessment of environmental hazards and toxicity of surfactants and detergents]: DOI: 10.1201/9781420021295.ch2;

Chapter 7: DOI: 10.1201/9781420021295.ch7

**


                New ecological terminology was introduced in the paper: ecological tax; ecological repair of water quality: Reference:

Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. – Hydrobiologia. 2005. Vol. 542, No. 1. P. 275 – 286.   www.scribd.com/doc/44105992/;           

DOI: 10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1;

 

 

Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders, From the issue entitled “Aquatic Biodiversity II“; Indexed, Web of Science.

 

Examples of the institutions that cited this paper:


Department of Paleobiology, MRC-121, National Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA; citation of the paper: “Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders”; cited in: D. H. Erwin, S. Tweedt . Ecological drivers of the Ediacaran-Cambrian diversification of Metazoa. — Evolutionary Ecology. 2011 [Abstract: Organismal modifications to their physical and chemical environment play a significant role in structuring many modern ecosystems, …] DOI: 10.1007/s10682-011-9505-7; http://www.springerlink.com/content/68744t228x044112/; published online 13 July 2011;
Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, NM 87501, USA; citation of the paper: “Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders”; cited in: D. H. Erwin, S. Tweedt . Ecological drivers of the Ediacaran-Cambrian diversification of Metazoa. — Evolutionary Ecology. 2011 [Abstract: Organismal modifications to their physical and chemical environment play a significant role in structuring many modern ecosystems, …] DOI: 10.1007/s10682-011-9505-7; http://www.springerlink.com/content/68744t228x044112/; published online 13 July 2011;
Behavior, Ecology, Evolution and Systematics (BEES), University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA; citation of the paper: “Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders”; cited in: D. H. Erwin, S. Tweedt . Ecological drivers of the Ediacaran-Cambrian diversification of Metazoa. — Evolutionary Ecology. 2011 [Abstract: Organismal modifications to their physical and chemical environment play a significant role in structuring many modern ecosystems, …] DOI: 10.1007/s10682-011-9505-7; http://www.springerlink.com/content/68744t228x044112/; published online 13 July 2011;

**

                A detailed well-structured presentation of the author’s innovative and multifaceted conceptualization of how almost all aquatic organisms work together toward making water clear and clean:

On the Multifunctional Role of the Biota in the Self-Purification of Aquatic  Ecosystems. – Russian Journal of Ecology, 2005. Vol. 36, No. 6, P. 414-420http://www.scribd.com/doc/45572968http://www.scribd.com/doc/49131150;   

DOI: 10.1007/s11184-005-0095-x;  Indexed, Web of Science.

**


                 It is the first opinion and review paper in which a multi-aspect innovative analysis of the ecological role of organisms that filter water was given. It discovered a set of functions and mechanisms which form and improve water quality: Reference:

Suspension-feeders as factors influencing water quality in aquatic ecosystems.   In: The Comparative Roles of Suspension-Feeders in Ecosystems, R.F. Dame,  S. Olenin (Eds),  Springer, Dordrecht,  2004.  pp.  147-164.

http://www.springerlink.com/content/q871733861050601/;          

DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-3030-4_9

**
                 A detailed well-structured presentation of the author’s innovative and multifaceted conceptualization of how almost all aquatic organisms work together toward making marine and estuarine water clear and clean.

It is the first time, a new concept and the term ‘biomachinery’ is formulated; in these publication, it is the first timethat the new term ‘biomachinery’ was introduced; It is the first time that the new concept and term ‘biomachinery’ was applied to ecosystem. It is the first time that water self- purification in aquatic ecosystems was considered as an example of functioning of biomachinery.  More comment: http://www.scribd.com/doc/61779321/ Reference:       

Ostroumov S.A. Biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine and estuarine systems: elements of a qualitative theory. –  International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography.  2006.  Volume 1, No.1. p.111-118. [ISSN 0973-2667]. www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/100141.pdf;

**
                Long-term studies of the biological effect of surfactants, including the effect surfactants exert on filter feeders, are reviewed. The role  of filter feeders in the functioning of freshwater and marine ecosystems is analyzed. New aspects in the assessment of environmental hazard due to the impact of chemical pollutants, including surfactants and detergents, are established. Reference:       

The effect of synthetic surfactants on the hydrobiological mechanisms of water self-purification. – Water Resources. 2004.  Volume 31, Number 5, p. 502-510. (in Eng). http://www.scribd.com/doc/41169530/WR502;

DOI 10.1023/B:WARE.0000041919.77628.8d.

In English: www.springerlink.com/index/wj7qx8550w1048u6.pdf;          

English paper DOI: 10.1023/B:WARE.0000041919.77628.8d;

**
                Generalizations presented in this paper represent, in systematized form, the basic elements of the qualitative theory of water self-purification in freshwater and marine ecosystems. Recommendations are given for maintaining water quality and sustainable development of water resources. Results of experimental studies of the effect exerted by the surfactant Triton X-100 and the synthetic detergent OMO on freshwater bivalve mollusks Unio tumidus.         

On some issues of maintaining water quality and self-purification.- Water Resources, 2005. Volume 32, Number 3, p. 305-313. ISSN 0097-8078 (Print) 1608-344X (Online).   http://www.scribd.com/doc/57511892/0305;    

DOI: 10.1007/s11268-005-0039-7;

**
                 One of the authors of published reviews of the book called it ‘Russian Silent Spring’.  The reviewed book is one of the first books which created the fundamentals of conservation biology. This work examines the problems arising from the deterioration of the environment and covers the issues of conservation and biodiversity protection at the molecular-genetic, the ontogenetic, the species-population and the ecosystem levels. The book offers suggestions concerning changes in practice in agriculture, industry, recreation etc. – in all sectors of society life and functioning. Reference:         

Yablokov A.V., S.A.Ostroumov. Conservation of Living Nature and Resources: Problems, Trends, and Prospects. Berlin, New York et al. Springer. 1991. 272 p. Index of Authors: p. 249-251. Subject Index: p. 253-271. ISBN 3-540-52096-1;           On the book: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59415099/;

**

               A discovery of a new method to do bioassay of chemicals; discovery of a new form of phytotoxicity, the reference is:                  

Ostroumov S.A., Maksimov  V.N.  Bioassay of surfactants based on the disruption of seedling attachment to the substrate and rhizoderm root hair formation // Biology Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (May 1992); Vol. 18(4), p. 383-386; in English (ISSN 0098-2164); 

Translated from: Izvestiia Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriia Biologicheskaia, (4), 1991, p. 571-575.

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=1992%2FUS%2FUS92232.xml%3BUS9180902;            AVAILABLE AT: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. (United States of America), 10301 Baltimore Avenue,Beltsville, Md. 20705; Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml;  Email: [email protected];  URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;

KEY WORDS: bioassay, plant seedlings, surfactants, detergents, pollutants, hazard assessment, new methods, phytotoxicity, ecotoxicology;   AGRIS Categories: Pollution; Plant ecology; AGROVOC English terms: Fagopyrum esculentum; Brassica alba; Triticum aestivum; Indicator plants; Root hairs; Seedlings; Surface active agents; Bioassays; Pollution; AGROVOC French terms: Plante indicatrice; Poil absorbant; Plantule; Surfactant; Dosage biologique; Pollution; AGROVOC Spanish terms: Plantas indicadoras; Pelos radicales; Plantulas; Surfactantes; Ensayo biologico; Polucion;

**
                The first discovery of negative effects of a laundry detergent on flagellates, euglens. The reference:

Ostroumov, S.A.; Wasternack, K.  Response of photo-organotrophously growing green flagellates to water pollution by the detergent preparation “Kristall” // Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin (1991) Vol. 46(2), p. 66-67. [ISSN 0096-3925], in English;  Translated from: Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Biologiia, v. 46 (2), 1991, p. 67-68. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=1992%2FUS%2FUS92239.xml%3BUS9180000;

           AVAILABLE  in the U.S.A. AT: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. (United States of America), 10301 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Md. 20705; Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml;  Email: [email protected];  URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;

KEY WORDS: bioassay, surfactants, detergents, pollutants, hazard assessment, new methods, phytotoxicity, Protista, ecotoxicology, euglens, Euglena;  AGRIS Categories: Pollution; Plant ecology; AGROVOC English terms: Indicator plants; Mastigophora; Water pollution; Surface active agents; AGROVOC French terms: Plante indicatrice; Pollution de l’eau; Surfactant; AGROVOC Spanish terms: Plantas indicadoras; Polucion del agua; Surfactantes;

** 

New discoveries of examples of phytotoxicity of chemicals and of  chemical-induced changes in behavior of animals.     A first discovery of the negative effects of a cationic surfactant on the growth and elongation of plant seedlings (Fagopyrum esculentum) and on behavior of leeches (Hirudo medicinalis); Reference:

Response of test-organisms to water pollution with quaternary ammonia compounds. – Water resources (1992) [ISSN 0097-8078] Vol. 18(2), p. 171-175;  Translated from the Russian original articles: Vodnye Resursy, v.18 (2), 1991, p.112-116.

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=1992%2FUS%2FUS92235.xml%3BUS9176736; 

           AVAILABLE  in the U.S.A. AT: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. 10301 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Md. 20705; U.S.A. Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml;  Email: [email protected];  URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;

KEY WORDS: water quality, bioassay, plant seedlings, cationic, surfactants, detergents, pollutants, hazard assessment, new methods, phytotoxicity, ecotoxicology, leeches, Hirudo medicinalis, behavior, sublethal;  AGRIS Categories: Miscellaneous plant disorders; Pollution;  AGROVOC English terms: Water pollution; Quaternary ammonium compounds; Testing; Fagopyrum esculentum; Phytotoxicity; AGROVOC French terms: Pollution de l’eau; Compose d’ammonium quaternaire; Testage; Phytotoxicite; AGROVOC Spanish terms: Polucion del agua; Compuestos amonicos cuaternarios; Ensayo; Fitotoxicidad;

**

                A series of innovative variants and modifications of the methods for bioassaying phytotoxicity using plants, especially plant seedlings of higher plants:

Problems of assessment of biological activity of xenobiotics.-  Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin (1990) Vol. 45(2), p. 26-32; (ISSN 0096-3925) in English;

Translated from: Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta Biologiia, v. 45 (2), 1990, p. 27-34.        AVAILABLE in the U.S.A. at: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. 10301 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Md. 20705; U.S.A. Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml;  Email: [email protected];  URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;

KEY WORDS: Plant seedlings, surfactants, detergents, pollutants, hazard assessment, new methods, bioassay, phytotoxicity, ecotoxicology; AGRIS Categories: Plant physiology and biochemistry; Protection of plants – General aspects; Pollution; AGROVOC English terms: Pesticides; Pollutants; Water pollution; Bioassays; Indicator plants; Germination;  AGROVOC French terms: Pesticide; Polluant; Pollution de l’eau; Dosage biologique; Plante indicatrice; Germination;  AGROVOC Spanish terms: Plaguicidas; Contaminantes; Polucion del agua; Ensayo biologico; Plantas indicadoras; Germinacion;   

**
               A discovery in environmental science of nanomaterials. This is the first time it was shown that the nanoparticles of gold (Au) in substantial amount bind to the living biomass of the aquatic plant (macrophyte), Ceratophyllum demersum. The concentrations of gold were measured in the samples of the phytomass using a hi-tech method, neutron activation analysis (NAA). As a result of the binding and/or immobilization of the nanoparticles, the amount of gold in the samples of the phytomass increased manifold above the background level of gold in the plant tissues. The increase was by two orders of magnitude. The new data added some new information to the modern vision of the multifunctional role of the biota in the migration of elements in aquatic ecosystems. Also, the result added new information to the studies of interactions of gold with organisms that may contribute to new biotechnologies:

Ostroumov, S.A., Kolesov, G.M., Interaction of nanoparticles of gold with aquatic plant: Binding to Ceratophyllum demersum. –  Ecologica (2010) Vol. 17 (57) p. 3-6. In English; [ISSN 0354-3285];

Affiliation: Ostroumov, S.A., [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Biology]; Kolesov, G.M., [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; V.I. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry];

           AVAILABLE AT: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. 10301 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD. 20705; U.S.A. Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml;  Email: [email protected];  URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;

Key words: nanoparticles, nanomaterials, fate in environment, aquatic systems, aquatic plants, macrophytes; neutron activation analysis (NAA); environmental chemistry;

AGRIS Categories Plant physiology and biochemistry; Aquatic ecology AGROVOC English terms Ceratophyllaceae; Aquatic plants; Gold; Biomass; Plant tissues; Tissue analysis; Chemical composition; Aquatic communities; Aquatic environment; AGROVOC French terms Ceratophyllaceae; Plante aquatique; Or; Biomasse; Tissu vagatal; Analyse de tissus; Composition chimique; Communauta aquatique; Milieu aquatique; AGROVOC Spanish terms Ceratophyllaceae; Plantas acuaiticas; Oro; Biomasa; Tejidos vegetales; Anailisis de tejidos; Composician quimica; Comunidades acuaiticas; Ambiente acuaitico;

**

               New data on how detergents and surfactants slow down the filtration rate and suspension feeding of bivalve mollusks that are being cultivated in aquaculture (aqua-farming). The title in RussianВоздействие синтетических поверхностно-активных веществ и смесевых препаратов на моллюсков, используемых в аквакультуре // Рыбное хозяйство,  2009, No.  3; 92-94. (in Russian); (ISSN 0131-6184);

Translation of the title of the paper into English: Effects of the synthetic surfactants and chemical mixtures on marine mollusks used in aquaculture;

AVAILABLE AT: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. 10301 Baltimore Avenue,Beltsville, MD. 20705; U.S.A. Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml;  Email: [email protected];  URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;

KEY WORDS: TDTMA, SDS, molluscs, oysters, Crassostrea gigas, effects, detergents, surfactants, C. gigas, mussels,  Mytilus, galloprovicialis, edulis, bivalves, water quality, bioassay, aquaculture, aquafarming;

AGRIS Categories: Aquaculture production and management; AGROVOC English terms: Oysters; Mussels; Aquaculture; Surfactants; Environmental impact; Filtration; Russian federation; AGROVOC French terms: Huitre; Moule; Aquaculture; Surfactant; Impact sur l’environnement; Filtration; Federation de russie; AGROVOC Spanish terms: Ostra; Mejillon; Acuicultura; Surfactantes; Impacto ambiental; Filtracion; Federacion de rusia;

**

Evidence of merit:

Citation in many countries of Europe, N.America, S.America, Asia, Australia, Africa:

**

Scientists of these institutions (worldwide, more than 300 institutions in toto) have cited the publications (biology, ecology, environment) authored by Dr. S.A. Ostroumov, Moscow University

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sites, and papers,  where the publications of this author, the Fulbright Awardee, were cited. Environmental science, ecology, water safety, toxicology. Denmark, U.S.A., Canada, France, Switzerland, Japan, China, Korea, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Iceland, Israel, Italy, Spain, Mexico, Slovakia, United Kingdom, Ireland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Poland, Hungary, Serbia, Estonia, Lithuania, Turkey, Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Singapore, South Africa, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Qatar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Egypt, Kenya, other countries:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/examples-of-sites-and-papers-where.html

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Available in the U.S.A., Canada. Key innovative books, papers: ecology, environmental science. More than 100 publications, more than 200 libraries. 

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/01/available-in-usa-canada-key-innovative.html

** Key words, tags:

toxicity, phytotoxicity, invertebrates, freshwater ecology, marine biology, environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, water quality improvement, water purification, phytoremediation, aquatic ecosystems, ecosystem health, biotesting, aquaculture, aqua-farming, bivalve mollusks, biogeochemistry, chemical pollutants, synthetic surfactants, detergents, Doklady Biological Sciences