New insight into ecosystem services. Article titled: On the biotic self-purification of aquatic ecosystems: elements of the theory

A new insight into ecosystem services was provided in the article titled:

On the biotic self-purification of aquatic ecosystems: elements of the theory. Article.

link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FB%3ADOBS.0000033278.12858.12;

DOI 10.1023/B:DOBS.0000033278.12858.12.

One of key benefits from normal function of healthy aquatic ecosystems is  the provisioning of clean  water, in other words, maintaining proper water quality (which is a result of water self-purification in ecosystem).  Until the time of publishing this article, no consistent and multi-faceted theory of water self-purification had existed. This article is the first publication to formulate such a theory that  elucidates and integrates multiple roles of aquatic organisms involved, including not only microorganisms but also macroorganisms, e.g., higher plants and invertebrates. Both plankton and benthic organisms are involved and their roles were discovered and analyzed in this article.
A more detailed description of the content of this paper:
This article presents a  new theory of biotic (biological) maintaining the natural purification potential of aquatic ecosystems. The fundamental elements are formulated for a qualitative theory of the multifunctional (polyfunctional) role of the biota (the biological community of aquatic organisms) in improving water quality and doing water self-purification in aquatic ecosystems. The  theory covers the following:
the sources of energy for the mechanisms of water self-purification;
the main functional blocks of the system of self-purification;
the system of the main processes that are involved;
the analysis of the degree of participation of the main large taxa; the reliability of the mechanisms of water self-purification; regulation of the processes;
the response of the mechanisms of water self-purification towards the external influences (man-made impacts, pollution);
and some conclusions relevant to the practice of environment protection.
In support of the theory, the results are given of the author’s experiments which demonstrated the ability of some pollutants (surfactants, detergents, and some others) to inhibit the water filtration activity of aquatic invertebrate filter-feeders, namely, the bivalve mollusks, including mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus edulis), and oysters (Crassostrea gigas).
More information on this article:

Laboratory of Physico-Chemistry of Biomembranes, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorob’evy gory, Moscow, 119991 Russia.

Doklady Biological Sciences. 2004; 396:206-211.

Source: PubMed;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2015/01/on-biotic-self-purification-of-aquatic_22.html;

This paper is on the short prestigious, honorable list ‘Top papers, books on aquatic ecology, ecotoxicology’ at the largest global catalog, WorldCatalog

[source:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2014/09/the-series-of-publications-on-list-of.html].

This fundamental and innovative article was cited and commented favorably by scientists in many countries.

A Diploma (Academy of Water Sciences) – a certificate of high scientific quality – was awarded to the series of publications (on ecology, environmental science) including this article: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2014/07/award-july-1-2014-to-series-of.html;

The paper was bookmarked by members of ResearchGate.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/200567576_On_the_biotic_self-purification_of_aquatic_ecosystems_elements_of_the_theory ;

This paper is on the short prestigious, honorable list ‘Top papers, books on aquatic ecology, ecotoxicology’ at the largest global catalog, WorldCatalog [source: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2014/09/the-series-of-publications-on-list-of.html].

This article was cited by scientists in Europe, N. America (U.S.A.), and Asia. Diploma (Academy of Water Sciences) – a certificate of high scientific quality – was awarded to the series of publications (on ecology, environmental science) including this article: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2014/07/award-july-1-2014-to-series-of.html;

The paper was bookmarked by members of ResearchGate.

DOI: 10.1023/B:DOBS.0000033278.12858.12; http://scipeople.ru/users/2943391/; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/200567576_ ;

This paper has a double impact as it is in the journal that is being published in 2 languages.

The Russian version of this paper was published:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265294672_ ;

The reference to the Russian version: Doklady Akademii Nauk, V.396, No.1, 2004, p.136–141.

Attention attracted:  by 26st January 2015, this article was mentioned by  17 Facebook users; and a Google+ user. At ResearchGate: 143 downloads of this article,  6 bookmarks,  and 1007 views (by January 26, 2015);

It was mentioned at web-pages / links:

FAQ: Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems … – 5bio5

5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/faq-bioticselfpurification-of-aquatic.html ;
 

On the biotic self-purification of aquatic ecosystems …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15354827;

http://www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/6113556 ;

http://libra.msra.cn/Publication/38311417/on-the-biotic-self-purification;
http://istina.msu.ru/publications/article/591025/ ;

At citeulike.org,

Groups interested in: On the Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems: Elements of the Theory.

key words:

theory, polyfunctional, multifunctional, role, biological, community, ecosystem service, ecosystem health, biota, improving, water quality, self-purification, aquatic ecosystems, sources of energy, mechanisms of water self-purification, functional blocks, reliability, man-made impacts, pollution, environment, protection, pollutants, surfactants, detergents, filtration activity, marine, filter-feeders, suspension feeders, bivalve, mollusks, mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus edulis, oysters, Crassostrea gigas, environmental safety, sustainable use, aquatic resources, sustainability, aquaculture, aqua-farming, protection of environment, top publications, pollution control, environmental safety, water, limnology, freshwater, marine, ecology, environmental toxicology, ecotoxicology, Moscow State University, hazard assessment, bioassays,

Innovative articles, fresh ideas: in one of the best scientific journals of Russian Academy of Sciences, in English. Major innovations, discoveries explained in 1-to-3-line annotations.

Innovative articles, fresh ideas: in one of the best  scientific journals  of Russian Academy of Sciences, in English. Major innovations, discoveries explained in 1-to-3-line annotations.

The area of science: ecology, environmental science, water quality, water safety.

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/01/innovative-articles-fresh-ideas-in-one.html

Paradigm-shifting articles published in a unique scientific journal. 

Topics: environmental sciences, ecology, ecosystems, water quality.

Title of the journal: Doklady Biological Sciences

ISSN PRINT: 0012-4966. ISSN ONLINE: 1608-3105.

Language: English.

AvailabilityAll of these papers are available online via the Internet service Springerlink. Almost all of the libraries of the major U.S. universities have the paper copies of this journal.

Explanation of the title of the journal: the word ‘Doklady’ in Russian means ‘Reports’ or, in this context, ‘Proceedings’ or ‘Research communications’. This word came from the Russian title of the best scientific journal ‘Doklady Academii Nauk’ which means ‘Proceedings of Academy of Sciences’ or ‘Research Communications to Academy of Sciences’. This journal is indexed by Web of Science and PubMed.
How the journal looks:

**

Examples of the innovative papers in this journal, on environm. science, selected:

**

The Concept of Aquatic Biota as a Labile and Vulnerable Component of the Water Self-Purification System,  Doklady Biological Sciences, vol. 372, no. 2, pp. 286-289, in English. Author: Ostroumov, S.A.

Full text online free:

in English: http://www.academia.edu/782873

in English: http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069991

Citation, examples: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/01/citation-of-concept-of-aquatic-biota-as.html

**

New Definitions of the Concepts and Terms Ecosystem and Biogeocenosis. – Doklady Biological Sciences.
2002, v.383, No.1-6; pp.141-143. Full text free: www.scribd.com/doc/49065580;

citation, and comments on the innovation in this article see:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/01/new-definitions-of-concepts-and-terms.html

**

                 This paper formulated a fundamentally new solution to the problem of selecting criteria for identification and assessing environmental hazards of chemical pollutants, toxicants; the paper explains why the currently accepted set of criteria is non-efficient and leads to mistakes;               Reference:

Criteria of ecological hazards due to anthropogenic effects on the biota: searching for a system. – Dokl. Biol. Sci. (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2000; 371: 204-206. Doklady Biological Sciences: ISSN PRINT: 0012-4966. ISSN ONLINE: 1608-3105. http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs371p204criteria/www.scribd.com/doc/49088234;

Why this paper is useful: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60891549/;

Blog post on a closely related paper in Rivista di Biologia:

**

A closely related paper: A new set of criteria in order to answer the question was formulated in this paper: is a given chemical substance hazardous to environment or not?    Reference:  Ostroumov S.A.  Anthropogenic effects on the biota: towards a new system of principles and criteria for analysis of ecological hazards. – Riv. Biol. (Rivista di Biologia) 2003,  96(1):159-169. Review.

Full text free:

key words: innovation, new solution, criteria,  assessment, environmental, ecological, hazards, danger, chemical, pollutants, toxicants,

**

                  This paper is the first publication that considered an aquatic ecosystem as an analog of a bioreactor, with some specific features that were described in the paper.This paper gave a revolutionary new insight into the core functions and identity of ecosystem as a bioreactor to maintain water quality. Reference:    

An aquatic ecosystem: a large-scale diversified bioreactor with a water self-purification function. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2000. Vol. 374, P. 514-516. 

Full text free:  www.scribd.com/doc/49065542http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069997;

**


                  This paper was the first that discovered the multi-faceted role of the entire broad range of aquatic organisms of all main groups of biodiversity in water self-purification. The conclusion was made that the complex of all the organisms, the entire biota is a unique (both changeable and fragile) part of the mechanism of ecosystem service to improve water quality;           Reference:

The Concept of Aquatic Biota as a Labile and Vulnerable Component of the Water Self-Purification System. – Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 372, 2000, pp. 286–289. Full text free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069991;

**
                  It is the first paper that reported two new experimental results. First, the new author’s experiments measured the biota-driven fluxes of the matter and chemical elements in a model ecosystem.  Second, the authors got another innovative result: a discovery of effects of chemical pollutants. Namely, these biota-driven flows of the chemical elements were decreased by a chemical pollutant exemplified by a synthetic surfactant:           Reference:

S. A. Ostroumov, and M. P. Kolesnikov. Biocatalysis of Matter Transfer in a Microcosm Is Inhibited by a Contaminant: Effects of a Surfactant on Limnea stagnalis. [Lymnaea stagnalis] – Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 373, 2000, pp. 397–399. Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 373, No. 2, 2000, pp. 278–280. Full text free:  www.scribd.com/doc/49069985;

**

                  This paper discovered new mechanisms triggering eutrophication and as a result, a new solution to the problem of eutrophication: Reference:      

The Synecological Approach to the Problem of Eutrophication. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001,  v. 381, No. 1-6; pp. 559-562.

Full text free:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065550/;  DOI: 10.1023/A:1013378505630;

**

 

               First measurements, first publication: New quantitative data on how aquatic mollusks drive fluxes of the chemical elements. The reference is: 

Ostroumov S. A., M. P. Kolesnikov. Pellets of Some Mollusks in the Biogeochemical Flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v. 379, p. 378-381

Full text free:

www.scribd.com/doc/49065604;  http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730;    PMID: 12918380;   DOI: 10.1023/A:1011620817764;

**

                Modernization and refreshing of the most fundamental concepts, notions, and terminology of ecology.         Reference:

New Definitions of the Concepts and Terms Ecosystem and Biogeocenosis; – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2002, v. 383, No. 1-6; pp. 141-143.

Full text free:

www.scribd.com/doc/49065580; DOI: 10.1023/A:1015393924967;

**

                New logical conceptualization of how all biodiversity of the aquatic organisms functions together toward up-grading water quality: 

On the Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems: Elements of the Theory. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2004, v. 396, No.1-6; pp. 206-211.

Full text free:

                 New approach and innovative methodology to experimentally analyze interactions of organisms:           Reference: 

Inhibitory Analysis of Regulatory Interactions in Trophic Webs. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v. 377, No. 1-6; pp. 139-141.

Full text free:

www.scribd.com/doc/49065567;  DOI: 10.1023/A:1019218026198;

**

              Discovery of a new type of negative effects of chemical pollutants on aquatic organisms and ecosystems.   Reference:

Effect of Amphiphilic Chemicals on Filter-Feeding Marine Organisms. – Doklady Biological Sciences; 2001, v. 378, No. 1-6; pp. 248-250. Full text free:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065593http://www.scribd.com/doc/59417067

**

                 The first publication that proposed used the new terminology: two-level synergism; synecological summation. As a result, a new fundamental concept and terminology were introduced into environmental science, and ecology: Two-Level Synergism, Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects:     

Ostroumov  S. A. The Hazard of a Two-Level Synergism of Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects.  – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v. 380, No. 1-6; pp. 499-501. 

Full text free:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065634/;   DOI: 10.1023/A:1012348127085

 

                 It is the first time that some negative effect of chemical pollutant (synthetic surfactant) on feeding activity of rotifers was discovered:          

Ostroumov S.A., N. Walz; R. Rusche. Effect of a Cationic Amphiphilic Compound on Rotifers – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2003, v. 390, No. 1-6; pp. 252-255;

Full text free:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/52634169/;           www.scribd.com/doc/52634169/3-Effect-of-a-cationic-amphiphilic-compound-on-rotifersDBN; DOI: 10.1023/A:1024417903077;

 

               It is the first discovery of the new aspect of fundamental cause-effect link between the conservation of biodiversity and protection of water quality.  This paper is the first that stresses that this is a two-way link:

Biodiversity Protection and Quality of Water: The Role of Feedbacks in Ecosystems. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2002, v. 382, No. 1-6; pp. 18-21;

Full text free:

DOI: 10.1023/A:1014465220673;

**
                 The first identification of a new type of negative effect of chemical pollutants: Reference:

A New Type of Effect of Potentially Hazardous Substances: Uncouplers of Pelagial–Benthal Coupling. –  Doklady Biological Sciences, 2002. v.383, No. 1-6; pp. 127-130.

Full text free:


                Modernization of the system of principles for conservation of biodiversity;

Formulation of a new relevant principle: conservation and protection of a key aspect of ecosystem’s service in up-grading water quality; an innovative suggestion to establish a special type of protected aquatoria to protect organisms that filter and purify water:      Reference:

System of Principles for Conservation of the Biogeocenotic Function and the Biodiversity of Filter-Feeders. –   Doklady Biological Sciences 2002, v.383, No.1-6; pp.147-150. Full text free:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911862; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065586;

DOI: 10.1023/A:1015398125876;


                Innovative analysis of the factors that create environmental balance as related to plankton, which in turn is relevant to proper management of water resources, and water quality sustainability:   

Imbalance of Factors Providing Control of Unicellular Plankton Populations Exposed to Anthropogenic Impact. –  Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.379, No.1-6; pp.341-343.

www.scribd.com/doc/49065596; DOI: 10.1023/A:1011600213221;

**
                New fundamental concept: a new type of joint man-made effects on biological community and ecosystems was identified. The author of this article in the journal ‘Doklady Biological Sciences’, Dr. S.A.Ostroumov, proposed to name this concept as: Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects:   

Responses of Unio tumidus to Mixed Chemical Preparations and the Hazard of Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.380, No.1-6; pp.492-495;  Full text free:  www.scribd.com/doc/49065621/; DOI: 10.1023/A:1012344026176;

**
                A new contribution to the scientific basis of phytoremediation and phytotechnology for water treatment: Reference:         

Lazareva E. V.; Ostroumov S.A. Accelerated decrease in surfactant concentration in the water of a microcosm in the presence of plants: Innovations for phytotechnology. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2009, v.425, No.1; pp.180-182.  Full text free:  http://www.scribd.com/doc/60795487/;

in English:   DOI: 10.1134/S0012496609020276;

**
               The first discovery of the negative effect of the synthetic chemical pollutant (surfactant) on filter- feeding of zooplankton, and negative effects of the chemical of water filtering: Vorozhun I. M., S. A. Ostroumov. On studying the hazards of pollution of the biosphere: effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) on planktonic filter-feeders. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2009, Vol. 425, pp. 133–134.  The journal:  ISSN 0012-4966.

Full text free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/45914806/;        

DOI: 10.1134/S0012496609020136;  http://www.springerlink.com/content/p7754h672w814m30/;

**
                It is the first paper in which a discovery of a new type of environmental hazards from chemical pollutants was made: namely, the hazards of a decrease in vital function of healthy aquatic ecosystems which maintain the proper level of cleanness (purity) of water, and improve water quality:

Identification of a new type of ecological hazard of chemicals: inhibition of processes of ecological remediation. – Doklady Biological Sciences. 2002. 385: 377-379. In Eng.; ISSN 0012-4966. DOI 10.1023/A:1019929305267;

 


It is a first paper in which a new solution to the eternal and painful problem of need for proper objective criteria for identification of and assessing environmental hazards of chemical pollutants:     Reference:

Criteria of ecological hazards due to anthropogenic effects on the biota: searching for a system. – Dokl. Biol. Sci. (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2000; 371: 204-206.  Full text free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/49088234; http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs371p204criteria/;

**
                It is a first paper in which a new aspect and facet of the essence and identity of ecosystem was discovered and analyzed. In this paper, it was shown that ecosystem has attributes of a bioreactor:  Reference:

An aquatic ecosystem: a large-scale diversified bioreactor with a water self-purification function. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2000. Vol. 374, P. 514-516.  Full text free:

**
                                  It is the first paper in which it was clearly shown that aquatic biota (the sum of organisms) is the core part of the ecological mechanism of water self-purification in healthy aquatic ecosystems. The important attributes of this core part of the mechanism are: 1) lability; 2) vulnerability to anthropogenic impact. The author formulated a new fundamental concept of the complex of organisms of aquatic ecosystem. According to the concept, the biota is a central, labile and vulnerable (to pollutants) part of the ecological mechanism of water self-purification and upgrade of water quality.

Key words: Geoscience, water quality, assessment of biological activity of surfactants, chemical pollution, self-purification of water, aquatic organisms, contaminants, aquatic ecosystems:    

The Concept of Aquatic Biota as a Labile and Vulnerable Component of the Water Self-Purification System. – Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 372, 2000, pp. 286–289. Full text free:  http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs372p286biotalabil/;

Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 372, No. 2, 2000, pp. 279–282. Original Russian Text Copyright © 2000 by Ostroumov.

Self-purification of water is a complex process including physical, chemical, and biological components [1–3]. The vulnerability of different components of the water self-purification system to anthropogenic factors is as yet insufficiently understood. The goal of this work was to review the literature and our own unpublished experimental findings concerning potential vulnerability of the biotic component of the water self-purification system to chemical pollutants.

A new role of biota as a core, labile, vulnerable part of ecosystem and upgrade of water quality. Full text free: www.scribd.com/doc/49069991;

**

                 It is the first study in which it was shown that the vital function of aquatic organisms (catalysis of matter transfer, and biogeochemical flows of chemical elements through the water column in the normal ecosystem) is decreased by the chemical pollutant as represented by a synthetic surfactant:      

S. A. Ostroumov and M. P. Kolesnikov. Biocatalysis of Matter Transfer in a Microcosm Is Inhibited by a Contaminant: Effects of a Surfactant on Limnea  [Lymnaea] stagnalis. – Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 373, 2000, pp. 397–399. Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 373, No. 2, 2000, pp. 278–280. Full text free: www.scribd.com/doc/49069985

**
                 New fundamental concepts were formulated in the concept:

1) a two-level synergism (a new scientific term);

2) synecological summation  (a new scientific term) of man-made effects.

The Hazard of a Two-Level Synergism of Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects // Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, vol.380, p.499-501;

(Rus. P. 847); two-level synergism; Full text free:  http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065634/;

**
                 The first data on discovery that chemical pollutants (detergents and surfactants) decreased the filtration rate by the mass freshwater mollusks, freshwater mussels Unio tumidus. A new type of complex anthropogenic effects on ecosystem was found which the author proposed to name ‘synecological summation’.  Reference:    

Ostroumov S.A. Responses of Unio tumidus to Mixed Chemical Preparations and the Hazard of Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, vol. 380, p. 492-495;  Full text free:  http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065621/; it was above;

**


                 The first measurements of the contribution of the pellets of aquatic mollusks to the biogeochemical flows of the chemical elements C, N, P, Si, and Al:  Reference:

S. A. Ostroumov, M. P. Kolesnikov. Pellets of some mollusks in the biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.379, p.378-381; see item 10; Full text free:

www.scribd.com/doc/49065604http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730;


                 The first data on the new negative effects of organic pollutants  – detergents and surfactants – on functioning of marine bivalve mollusks. The first data on how the detergents and surfactants slow down (inhibit) water filtration by those bivalve mollusks,  mussels and oysters which are of huge importance to aquaculture: Reference:

Effect of Amphiphilic Chemicals on Filter-Feeding Marine Organisms. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.378, No.1-6; pp.248-250

Full text free:

www.scribd.com/doc/49065604; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065593http://www.scribd.com/doc/59417067/; DOI: 10.1023/A:1019270825775;

 

**

This is the first paper that demonstrated that this species of aquatic plants (macrophytes) is instrumental in decreasing the levels of 4 heavy metals in water in case of multi-metal pollution. It is a significant contribution to creating an innovative green technology of water treatment: Reference:

S. A. Ostroumov, and T. V. Shestakova. Decreasing the measurable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the water of the experimental systems containing Ceratophyllum demersum: The phytoremediation potential. – DOKLADY BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. Volume 428, Number 1 (2009), 444-447;  DOI: 10.1134/S0012496609050159;  Full text online free:

https://sites.google.com/site/9dbs444/decreasing-the-measurable-concentrations-of-cu-zn-cd-and-pb-in-the-water

An example of citation of this paper:

U.S. EPA (U.S.A.): in the EPA’s HERO database [Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)]: cited: Ostroumov S.A., Shestakova T.V. Decreasing the measurable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the water of the experimental systems containing Ceratophyllum demersum: The phytoremediation potential. – Doklady Biological Sciences. 2009, Vol. 428, No. 1, p. 444-447. http://hero.epa.gov/index.cfm?action=search.view&reference_id=362778;

 

**

This is the first paper that discovered that in aquatic medium, nanoparticles of metal can be immobilized by aquatic plants (macrophytes). This is a very innovative contribution to our knowledge on nanomaterials. Until this paper next to nothing was known what happens with nanomaterials when they enter the aquatic environment with aquatic organisms: Reference:

S.A. Ostroumov, G.M. Kolesov. The Aquatic Macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum Immobilizes Au Nanoparticles after Their Addition to Water. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2010, Vol. 431, pp. 124–127.   Full text: http://www.scribd.com/doc/45579375; 

The article is indexed by PubMed. It is on SpringerLink. www.springerlink.com/index/J487667871W02H28.pdf; http://www.springerlink.com/content/j487667871w02h28/;

DOI: 10.1134/S0012496610020158;

ISSN 0012-4966, © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010. Translated from: Doklady Akademii Nauk, 2010, Vol. 431, No. 4, pp. 566–569.

Full text free:

***

ADDENDUM

Some related and relevant articles in some of the other journals:

 

                It is the first paper in which it was clearly proved that the synthetic chemical, when it pollutes water, produces a dangerous effect on both marine mussels and phytoplankton: it decreases water filtration rate by the mussels, and the normal control of abundance of phytoplankton by the marine mussels, the control which is associated with the filtration of water. Reference:          

 

An Amphiphilic Substance Inhibits the Mollusk Capacity to Filter out Phytoplankton Cells from Water. – Biology Bulletin, 2001, v.28, No.1; pp.95-102.

www.springerlink.com/index/l665628020163255.pdf;

Abstract, in detail: The effect of synthetic anionic surface active substance (SAS) sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 4 mg/l) on the kinetics of water filtration by mussel Mytilus edulis was studied. A suspension of algae Isochrysis galbana was added to the vessel with the mussels, and their filtration activity was measured by counting the concentration of the algae cells in the experimental vessels. Algae concentration was measured every 30 min for an hour and a half. The inhibiting effect on the mollusk filtration rate (FR) was qualitatively described. After the first 30 min filtration at 4 mg/l initial SDS concentration, the cell density was 322% of the control. The inhibiting effect was observed later as well. Due to FR inhibition in the vessels with the above specified initial SDS concentration, the algae cell density was 6.4 and 14.7 times that of the control after 1 and 1.5 h, respectively. Thus, SAS SDS can decrease the natural capacity of aquatic ecosystems for self-purification and disturb other aspects of ecosystem functioning through inhibiting the filtration activity of mussels. The obtained data are discussed in the context of environment and hydrosphere protection from pollution. www.springerlink.com/index/l665628020163255.pdfhttp://www.scribd.com/doc/63444377/;   DOI: 10.1023/A:1026671024000

**

 

A more detailed analysis of the discovery and innovation that was made in the paper above (An aquatic ecosystem: a large-scale diversified bioreactor with a water self-purification function. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2000. 374: 514-516);

A new aspect of the identity of ecosystem was discovered and analyzed: the paper showed that ecosystem has attributes of a bioreactor: Reference:       

Aquatic ecosystem as a bioreactor: water purification and some other functions.  – Riv. Biol. 2004, 97(1): 67-78.

**

           A first and unique paper in which an international team of experts, scientists of three countries formulated a short list of research priorities in ecology and environmental sciences for the current century: Reference:    

Ostroumov S.A., Dodson S.I., Hamilton D., Peterson S.A., Wetzel R.G.  Medium-term and long-term priorities in ecological studies. – Riv. Biol. 2003, 96(2): 327-332.    PMID: 14595906 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]; http://www.scribd.com/doc/48100827/3Rivista-Bio-96-Priorities-2; http://scipeople.com/uploads/materials/4389/3RivistaBio96Priorities2.rtf; www.scribd.com/doc/57124875/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52655707/ ;

**                

A new set of criteria in order to answer the question was formulated in this paper: is a given chemical substance hazardous to environment or not?      

Anthropogenic effects on the biota: towards a new system of principles and criteria for analysis of ecological hazards. – Riv. Biol. (Rivista di Biologia) 2003,  96(1): 159-169. Review.

Full text free: 

http://www.scribd.com/doc/52636721/    PMID: 12852181 [PubMed – indexed; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52636721/3-System-of-Criteria;

**

                 More new data on how an anionic surfactant (detergent) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) decreases the removal of algal cells from aquatic medium by marine bivalve Mytilus edulis: Reference:

[An amphiphilic substance inhibits the mollusk capacity to filter phytoplankton cells from water]. – Izv. Akad. Nauk Ser. Biol. 2001. (1):108-116. Russian. PMID: 11236572 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE];

Full text free:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/63444377/BiolBul2001-1p95-E-an-Amphiphilic-BB95-An-amphiphilic-substance-inhibits;   in Eng, in the form:

**

 

An Amphiphilic Substance Inhibits the Mollusk Capacity to Filter out Phytoplankton Cells from Water. BIOLOGY BULLETIN, Volume 28, Number 1 (2001), 95-102,    DOI: 10.1023/A:1026671024000;

An example of citation of this paper:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/71487249/; University of Cambridge cited the articles written by Dr. S.A.Ostroumov

**

McIvor, A.L. (2004) Freshwater mussels as biofilters. PhD thesis, Dep’t of Zoology, University of Cambridge. http://www.ourearth.co.uk/annamcivor/ref.pdf; The papers that were cited:

(1) Ostroumov, S. A. 2001. An amphiphilic substance inhibits the mollusk capacity to filter out phytoplankton cells from water. Biology Bulletin 28, 95-102. Full text see online free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/63444377/BiolBul2001-1p95-E-an-Amphiphilic-BB95;

(2) Ostroumov, S. A. 2002. Polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and concluding remarks. Hydrobiologia 469, 203-204. Full text see online free:http://www.scribd.com/doc/52627327/2H469p203-Polyfunctional-role-w-Addendum;

 

**
                 It is a first paper in which a synthesis of both authors new experimental data and international literature was made, which led to a new broad picture of the role of biological filtering in self-purification and self-bioremediation of aquatic ecosystems.

 

Biological filtering and ecological machinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems: towards a holistic view. – Riv. Biol. 1998; 91(2):221-232.  http://www.scribd.com/doc/42830557; http://www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/9750710;            PMID: 9857844; PubMed – indexed;

 

**
                 It is the first article in which the new experimental data of the author were analyzed to give new fresh insight into ecological mechanisms of eutrophication and abnormal increase in phytoplankton. Also, new insight in how ecosystem runs water self-purification. A fundamentally new approach and methodology to study top-down control in ecosystems: the first introduction of what the author calls ‘inhibitory analysis’; the paper  presented a new insight in understanding that a decrease in activity of filter-feeders are part of the causes and mechanisms of eutrophication and algal blooms. The paper shows how to identify and measure this new factor which stimulates those negative phenomena; More comment, and about citation of this paper, see: http://www.scribd.com/doc/61179989 

Reference:

Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002, vol. 469, p. 117-129http://www.scribd.com/doc/52598579/;    

DOI: 10.1023/A:1015559123646

**
                The first publication in which a concise presentation is given of the author’s theory of water self-purification. A short list of physical, chemical, and biological processes of water self-purification is given. One of the conclusions is: ‘living organisms are the core component of the multitude of processes of the ecological machinery working towards improving water quality’. Innovative and multifaceted conceptualization of how almost all aquatic organisms (biological community) work together toward making water clear and clean:    

Polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and  concluding remarks. – Hydrobiologia. 2002. V. 469 (1-3): 203-204. http://www.scribd.com/doc/52627327/2H469p203-Polyfunctional-role-w-Addendum;  DOI: 10.1023/A:1015555022737;

An example of citation of this paper:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/71487249/; University of Cambridge cited the articles written by Dr. S.A.Ostroumov

**

McIvor, A.L. (2004) Freshwater mussels as biofilters. PhD thesis, Dep’t of Zoology, University of Cambridge. http://www.ourearth.co.uk/annamcivor/ref.pdf; The papers that were cited:

(1)  Ostroumov, S. A. 2002. Polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and concluding remarks. Hydrobiologia 469, 203-204. Full text see online free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/52627327/2H469p203-Polyfunctional-role-w-Addendum; 

(2)Ostroumov, S. A. 2001. An amphiphilic substance inhibits the mollusk capacity to filter out phytoplankton cells from water. Biology Bulletin 28, 95-102. Full text see online free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/63444377/BiolBul2001-1p95-E-an-Amphiphilic-BB95;

**
                 New facts on how detergents slow down the filtration of water by aquatic organisms (bivalve mussels, oysters and others): Reference:     

Studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filter-feeding bivalves. – Hydrobiologia. 2003. Vol. 500. P.341-344  [including effects of synthetic surfactants TDTMA and SDS on marine bivalves, oysters  Crassostrea gigas]. Extended abstract and some info on citation of this paper: http://www.scribd.com/doc/63898669/;

Full text: http://www.springerlink.com/content/k05884h730t228w4/;

www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/9737871  DOI: 10.1023/A:1024604904065

[From the issue entitled “Aquatic Biodiversity”]

**
                 The first paper that reports experiments that showed that all three main kinds of  synthetic surfactants (detergent chemicals) slow down the filtration of water by marine organisms, filter-feeders (bivalve mussels of the Atlantic Ocean, Mytilus edulis). The 3 main types of surfactants that were studied were representatives of the 3 classes: anionic, cationic, and non-ionic surfactants.     

Ostroumov S.A., Widdows J. Inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes. – Hydrobiologia. 2006. Vol. 556, No.1. P. 381 – 386.

DOI: 10.1007/s10750-005-1200-7; Indexed in Web of science.

**
                A first book that summarizes the author’s 20-year-long studies of new environmental hazards from synthetic detergents, and innovative methods for measuring environmental toxicity (including biotesting with invertebrates, e.g. mollusks and leeches)  and phytotoxicity of chemicals:    

Ostroumov S.A.  Biological Effects of Surfactants. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, London, New York. 2006. 279 p. 

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/toxicity-of-surfactants-toxicity-of.html

http://www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/9744280; http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1527248.Biolo_Eff_of_Surf; http://www.scribd.com/doc/46637373/;  DOI: 10.1201/9781420021295.fmatt

Key words: Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis,  Crassostrea gigas, Unio, Hirudo medicinalis, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Synechococcus, Fagopyrum esculentum, Oryza sativa, seedlings, filter-feeders, oysters, TDTMA, SDS, surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate, detergents, marine mussels, Triton X-100, bioassay,

Chapter 1. Anthropogenic Impacts and Synthetic Surfactants as Pollutants of Aquatic Ecosystems:  DOI: 10.1201/9781420021295.ch1

Chapter 2. Organisms and Methods [that were studied and used in the book to perform bioassay and assessment of environmental hazards and toxicity of surfactants and detergents]: DOI: 10.1201/9781420021295.ch2;

Chapter 7: DOI: 10.1201/9781420021295.ch7

**


                New ecological terminology was introduced in the paper: ecological tax; ecological repair of water quality: Reference:

Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. – Hydrobiologia. 2005. Vol. 542, No. 1. P. 275 – 286.   www.scribd.com/doc/44105992/;           

DOI: 10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1;

 

 

Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders, From the issue entitled “Aquatic Biodiversity II“; Indexed, Web of Science.

 

Examples of the institutions that cited this paper:


Department of Paleobiology, MRC-121, National Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA; citation of the paper: “Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders”; cited in: D. H. Erwin, S. Tweedt . Ecological drivers of the Ediacaran-Cambrian diversification of Metazoa. — Evolutionary Ecology. 2011 [Abstract: Organismal modifications to their physical and chemical environment play a significant role in structuring many modern ecosystems, …] DOI: 10.1007/s10682-011-9505-7; http://www.springerlink.com/content/68744t228x044112/; published online 13 July 2011;
Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, NM 87501, USA; citation of the paper: “Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders”; cited in: D. H. Erwin, S. Tweedt . Ecological drivers of the Ediacaran-Cambrian diversification of Metazoa. — Evolutionary Ecology. 2011 [Abstract: Organismal modifications to their physical and chemical environment play a significant role in structuring many modern ecosystems, …] DOI: 10.1007/s10682-011-9505-7; http://www.springerlink.com/content/68744t228x044112/; published online 13 July 2011;
Behavior, Ecology, Evolution and Systematics (BEES), University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA; citation of the paper: “Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders”; cited in: D. H. Erwin, S. Tweedt . Ecological drivers of the Ediacaran-Cambrian diversification of Metazoa. — Evolutionary Ecology. 2011 [Abstract: Organismal modifications to their physical and chemical environment play a significant role in structuring many modern ecosystems, …] DOI: 10.1007/s10682-011-9505-7; http://www.springerlink.com/content/68744t228x044112/; published online 13 July 2011;

**

                A detailed well-structured presentation of the author’s innovative and multifaceted conceptualization of how almost all aquatic organisms work together toward making water clear and clean:

On the Multifunctional Role of the Biota in the Self-Purification of Aquatic  Ecosystems. – Russian Journal of Ecology, 2005. Vol. 36, No. 6, P. 414-420http://www.scribd.com/doc/45572968http://www.scribd.com/doc/49131150;   

DOI: 10.1007/s11184-005-0095-x;  Indexed, Web of Science.

**


                 It is the first opinion and review paper in which a multi-aspect innovative analysis of the ecological role of organisms that filter water was given. It discovered a set of functions and mechanisms which form and improve water quality: Reference:

Suspension-feeders as factors influencing water quality in aquatic ecosystems.   In: The Comparative Roles of Suspension-Feeders in Ecosystems, R.F. Dame,  S. Olenin (Eds),  Springer, Dordrecht,  2004.  pp.  147-164.

http://www.springerlink.com/content/q871733861050601/;          

DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-3030-4_9

**
                 A detailed well-structured presentation of the author’s innovative and multifaceted conceptualization of how almost all aquatic organisms work together toward making marine and estuarine water clear and clean.

It is the first time, a new concept and the term ‘biomachinery’ is formulated; in these publication, it is the first timethat the new term ‘biomachinery’ was introduced; It is the first time that the new concept and term ‘biomachinery’ was applied to ecosystem. It is the first time that water self- purification in aquatic ecosystems was considered as an example of functioning of biomachinery.  More comment: http://www.scribd.com/doc/61779321/ Reference:       

Ostroumov S.A. Biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine and estuarine systems: elements of a qualitative theory. –  International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography.  2006.  Volume 1, No.1. p.111-118. [ISSN 0973-2667]. www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/100141.pdf;

**
                Long-term studies of the biological effect of surfactants, including the effect surfactants exert on filter feeders, are reviewed. The role  of filter feeders in the functioning of freshwater and marine ecosystems is analyzed. New aspects in the assessment of environmental hazard due to the impact of chemical pollutants, including surfactants and detergents, are established. Reference:       

The effect of synthetic surfactants on the hydrobiological mechanisms of water self-purification. – Water Resources. 2004.  Volume 31, Number 5, p. 502-510. (in Eng). http://www.scribd.com/doc/41169530/WR502;

DOI 10.1023/B:WARE.0000041919.77628.8d.

In English: www.springerlink.com/index/wj7qx8550w1048u6.pdf;          

English paper DOI: 10.1023/B:WARE.0000041919.77628.8d;

**
                Generalizations presented in this paper represent, in systematized form, the basic elements of the qualitative theory of water self-purification in freshwater and marine ecosystems. Recommendations are given for maintaining water quality and sustainable development of water resources. Results of experimental studies of the effect exerted by the surfactant Triton X-100 and the synthetic detergent OMO on freshwater bivalve mollusks Unio tumidus.         

On some issues of maintaining water quality and self-purification.- Water Resources, 2005. Volume 32, Number 3, p. 305-313. ISSN 0097-8078 (Print) 1608-344X (Online).   http://www.scribd.com/doc/57511892/0305;    

DOI: 10.1007/s11268-005-0039-7;

**
                 One of the authors of published reviews of the book called it ‘Russian Silent Spring’.  The reviewed book is one of the first books which created the fundamentals of conservation biology. This work examines the problems arising from the deterioration of the environment and covers the issues of conservation and biodiversity protection at the molecular-genetic, the ontogenetic, the species-population and the ecosystem levels. The book offers suggestions concerning changes in practice in agriculture, industry, recreation etc. – in all sectors of society life and functioning. Reference:         

Yablokov A.V., S.A.Ostroumov. Conservation of Living Nature and Resources: Problems, Trends, and Prospects. Berlin, New York et al. Springer. 1991. 272 p. Index of Authors: p. 249-251. Subject Index: p. 253-271. ISBN 3-540-52096-1;           On the book: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59415099/;

**

               A discovery of a new method to do bioassay of chemicals; discovery of a new form of phytotoxicity, the reference is:                  

Ostroumov S.A., Maksimov  V.N.  Bioassay of surfactants based on the disruption of seedling attachment to the substrate and rhizoderm root hair formation // Biology Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (May 1992); Vol. 18(4), p. 383-386; in English (ISSN 0098-2164); 

Translated from: Izvestiia Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriia Biologicheskaia, (4), 1991, p. 571-575.

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=1992%2FUS%2FUS92232.xml%3BUS9180902;            AVAILABLE AT: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. (United States of America), 10301 Baltimore Avenue,Beltsville, Md. 20705; Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml;  Email: [email protected];  URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;

KEY WORDS: bioassay, plant seedlings, surfactants, detergents, pollutants, hazard assessment, new methods, phytotoxicity, ecotoxicology;   AGRIS Categories: Pollution; Plant ecology; AGROVOC English terms: Fagopyrum esculentum; Brassica alba; Triticum aestivum; Indicator plants; Root hairs; Seedlings; Surface active agents; Bioassays; Pollution; AGROVOC French terms: Plante indicatrice; Poil absorbant; Plantule; Surfactant; Dosage biologique; Pollution; AGROVOC Spanish terms: Plantas indicadoras; Pelos radicales; Plantulas; Surfactantes; Ensayo biologico; Polucion;

**
                The first discovery of negative effects of a laundry detergent on flagellates, euglens. The reference:

Ostroumov, S.A.; Wasternack, K.  Response of photo-organotrophously growing green flagellates to water pollution by the detergent preparation “Kristall” // Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin (1991) Vol. 46(2), p. 66-67. [ISSN 0096-3925], in English;  Translated from: Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Biologiia, v. 46 (2), 1991, p. 67-68. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=1992%2FUS%2FUS92239.xml%3BUS9180000;

           AVAILABLE  in the U.S.A. AT: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. (United States of America), 10301 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Md. 20705; Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml;  Email: [email protected];  URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;

KEY WORDS: bioassay, surfactants, detergents, pollutants, hazard assessment, new methods, phytotoxicity, Protista, ecotoxicology, euglens, Euglena;  AGRIS Categories: Pollution; Plant ecology; AGROVOC English terms: Indicator plants; Mastigophora; Water pollution; Surface active agents; AGROVOC French terms: Plante indicatrice; Pollution de l’eau; Surfactant; AGROVOC Spanish terms: Plantas indicadoras; Polucion del agua; Surfactantes;

** 

New discoveries of examples of phytotoxicity of chemicals and of  chemical-induced changes in behavior of animals.     A first discovery of the negative effects of a cationic surfactant on the growth and elongation of plant seedlings (Fagopyrum esculentum) and on behavior of leeches (Hirudo medicinalis); Reference:

Response of test-organisms to water pollution with quaternary ammonia compounds. – Water resources (1992) [ISSN 0097-8078] Vol. 18(2), p. 171-175;  Translated from the Russian original articles: Vodnye Resursy, v.18 (2), 1991, p.112-116.

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=1992%2FUS%2FUS92235.xml%3BUS9176736; 

           AVAILABLE  in the U.S.A. AT: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. 10301 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Md. 20705; U.S.A. Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml;  Email: [email protected];  URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;

KEY WORDS: water quality, bioassay, plant seedlings, cationic, surfactants, detergents, pollutants, hazard assessment, new methods, phytotoxicity, ecotoxicology, leeches, Hirudo medicinalis, behavior, sublethal;  AGRIS Categories: Miscellaneous plant disorders; Pollution;  AGROVOC English terms: Water pollution; Quaternary ammonium compounds; Testing; Fagopyrum esculentum; Phytotoxicity; AGROVOC French terms: Pollution de l’eau; Compose d’ammonium quaternaire; Testage; Phytotoxicite; AGROVOC Spanish terms: Polucion del agua; Compuestos amonicos cuaternarios; Ensayo; Fitotoxicidad;

**

                A series of innovative variants and modifications of the methods for bioassaying phytotoxicity using plants, especially plant seedlings of higher plants:

Problems of assessment of biological activity of xenobiotics.-  Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin (1990) Vol. 45(2), p. 26-32; (ISSN 0096-3925) in English;

Translated from: Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta Biologiia, v. 45 (2), 1990, p. 27-34.        AVAILABLE in the U.S.A. at: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. 10301 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Md. 20705; U.S.A. Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml;  Email: [email protected];  URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;

KEY WORDS: Plant seedlings, surfactants, detergents, pollutants, hazard assessment, new methods, bioassay, phytotoxicity, ecotoxicology; AGRIS Categories: Plant physiology and biochemistry; Protection of plants – General aspects; Pollution; AGROVOC English terms: Pesticides; Pollutants; Water pollution; Bioassays; Indicator plants; Germination;  AGROVOC French terms: Pesticide; Polluant; Pollution de l’eau; Dosage biologique; Plante indicatrice; Germination;  AGROVOC Spanish terms: Plaguicidas; Contaminantes; Polucion del agua; Ensayo biologico; Plantas indicadoras; Germinacion;   

**
               A discovery in environmental science of nanomaterials. This is the first time it was shown that the nanoparticles of gold (Au) in substantial amount bind to the living biomass of the aquatic plant (macrophyte), Ceratophyllum demersum. The concentrations of gold were measured in the samples of the phytomass using a hi-tech method, neutron activation analysis (NAA). As a result of the binding and/or immobilization of the nanoparticles, the amount of gold in the samples of the phytomass increased manifold above the background level of gold in the plant tissues. The increase was by two orders of magnitude. The new data added some new information to the modern vision of the multifunctional role of the biota in the migration of elements in aquatic ecosystems. Also, the result added new information to the studies of interactions of gold with organisms that may contribute to new biotechnologies:

Ostroumov, S.A., Kolesov, G.M., Interaction of nanoparticles of gold with aquatic plant: Binding to Ceratophyllum demersum. –  Ecologica (2010) Vol. 17 (57) p. 3-6. In English; [ISSN 0354-3285];

Affiliation: Ostroumov, S.A., [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Biology]; Kolesov, G.M., [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; V.I. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry];

           AVAILABLE AT: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. 10301 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD. 20705; U.S.A. Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml;  Email: [email protected];  URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;

Key words: nanoparticles, nanomaterials, fate in environment, aquatic systems, aquatic plants, macrophytes; neutron activation analysis (NAA); environmental chemistry;

AGRIS Categories Plant physiology and biochemistry; Aquatic ecology AGROVOC English terms Ceratophyllaceae; Aquatic plants; Gold; Biomass; Plant tissues; Tissue analysis; Chemical composition; Aquatic communities; Aquatic environment; AGROVOC French terms Ceratophyllaceae; Plante aquatique; Or; Biomasse; Tissu vagatal; Analyse de tissus; Composition chimique; Communauta aquatique; Milieu aquatique; AGROVOC Spanish terms Ceratophyllaceae; Plantas acuaiticas; Oro; Biomasa; Tejidos vegetales; Anailisis de tejidos; Composician quimica; Comunidades acuaiticas; Ambiente acuaitico;

**

               New data on how detergents and surfactants slow down the filtration rate and suspension feeding of bivalve mollusks that are being cultivated in aquaculture (aqua-farming). The title in RussianВоздействие синтетических поверхностно-активных веществ и смесевых препаратов на моллюсков, используемых в аквакультуре // Рыбное хозяйство,  2009, No.  3; 92-94. (in Russian); (ISSN 0131-6184);

Translation of the title of the paper into English: Effects of the synthetic surfactants and chemical mixtures on marine mollusks used in aquaculture;

AVAILABLE AT: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. 10301 Baltimore Avenue,Beltsville, MD. 20705; U.S.A. Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml;  Email: [email protected];  URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;

KEY WORDS: TDTMA, SDS, molluscs, oysters, Crassostrea gigas, effects, detergents, surfactants, C. gigas, mussels,  Mytilus, galloprovicialis, edulis, bivalves, water quality, bioassay, aquaculture, aquafarming;

AGRIS Categories: Aquaculture production and management; AGROVOC English terms: Oysters; Mussels; Aquaculture; Surfactants; Environmental impact; Filtration; Russian federation; AGROVOC French terms: Huitre; Moule; Aquaculture; Surfactant; Impact sur l’environnement; Filtration; Federation de russie; AGROVOC Spanish terms: Ostra; Mejillon; Acuicultura; Surfactantes; Impacto ambiental; Filtracion; Federacion de rusia;

**

Evidence of merit:

Citation in many countries of Europe, N.America, S.America, Asia, Australia, Africa:

**

Scientists of these institutions (worldwide, more than 300 institutions in toto) have cited the publications (biology, ecology, environment) authored by Dr. S.A. Ostroumov, Moscow University

**

sites, and papers,  where the publications of this author, the Fulbright Awardee, were cited. Environmental science, ecology, water safety, toxicology. Denmark, U.S.A., Canada, France, Switzerland, Japan, China, Korea, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Iceland, Israel, Italy, Spain, Mexico, Slovakia, United Kingdom, Ireland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Poland, Hungary, Serbia, Estonia, Lithuania, Turkey, Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Singapore, South Africa, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Qatar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Egypt, Kenya, other countries:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/examples-of-sites-and-papers-where.html

**

Available in the U.S.A., Canada. Key innovative books, papers: ecology, environmental science. More than 100 publications, more than 200 libraries. 

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/01/available-in-usa-canada-key-innovative.html

** Key words, tags:

toxicity, phytotoxicity, invertebrates, freshwater ecology, marine biology, environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, water quality improvement, water purification, phytoremediation, aquatic ecosystems, ecosystem health, biotesting, aquaculture, aqua-farming, bivalve mollusks, biogeochemistry, chemical pollutants, synthetic surfactants, detergents, Doklady Biological Sciences

New solution to control eutrophication

New solution to control eutrophication

Innovative scientific paper

Fulbright Award winner, Moscow State University

Ostroumov S.A. The Synecological Approach to the Problem of Eutrophication. – Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 381, 2001, p. 559–562. 3 Tables. Bibliogr. 15 refs. (Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, 2001, Vol. 381, No. 5, pp. 709–712). ISSN 0012-4966. www.springerlink.com/index/h7p6616572p476l1.pdf; Distributed by Springer, [email protected]

Abstract: the author suggests a new component of the measures against eutrophication: reducing the input of the pollutants that weaken the potential of the filter-feeders for removing algae. A new approach to combat eutrophication. Among new facts: the liquid detergent Fairy 2 mg/L inhibited filtration by bivalve filter-feeders mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis within 2-23 min after addition].

***DOI 10.1023/A:1013378505630. http://scipeople.ru/users/2943391/; http://scipeople.com/uploads/materials/4389/Danbio6_2001v381n5.E.eutrophication.pdf; http://www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/6113591;

*** Full text:

***
Russian version:
Синэкологические основы решения проблемы эвтрофирования // ДАН. 2001. Т.381 №5. C.709-712. 3 табл. Библ.15 назв. [Представлено академиком М.Е. Виноградовым.] Предложен новый подход к борьбе с эвтрофированием. Среди полученных новых фактов: жидкий детергент Fairy 2 мг/л снижал фильтрацию воды мидиями Mytilus. galloprovincialis сразу после добавления (инкубация 2 – 23 мин, 22.5ºС)]. [=Synecological basis for the solution of the problem of eutrophication. DAN. 2001. Vol. 381. No. 5. P. 709-712]. [a new approach to prevent eutrophication]. http://www.scribd.com/doc/57458085/;

**

new, measures against eutrophication, reducing, pollutants,  filter-feeders, removing, algae, new approach, combat, eutrophication, new facts, liquid, detergent, Fairy, inhibited, filtration, bivalve, mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis,  sustainability,  water quality, pollution, water, resources, ecosystem health,

New discovery: the heart and core of aquatic ecosystem health

New discovery: the heart and core of aquatic ecosystem health

This new discovery identified what is the essence, heart and core of aquatic ecosystem health. This is a key to water sustainability.

The concept of ecosystem health became popular. What is the core of  ecosystem health in case of aquatic ecosystems (reservoirs, rivers, lakes, seas, estuaries)?

To answer this question, there are a lot of factors to be given attention. One of these factors was  underestimated and almost ignored until now. However, this factor became more visible after the  works conducted at M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University.

This factor is the ability of a healthy ecosystem to improve and maintain water quality, in other words, to perform self-purification of water.

The main features of water self-purification were discovered, described and put into a system  in   a series of  publications of 1998 – 2010 [1-9].

In addition to above-mentioned English papers, the same author published some articles in Russian [10-15]:

Moreover,  the various aspects of self-purification were analyzed in the books of 2004 -2008 [16-18].

Additional discussion of these publications is given at sites  [19-21].

These publications developed a new theory of water self-purification.

In conclusion, the analysis of current literature demonstrated that the ecosystem health of aquatic  -freshwater, estuarine, marine – ecosystems  includes the ability of the biological community to purify water (to perform water self-purification). The modern theory of water self-purification was developed by the author in a series of papers and books, 1998 -2010.

Literature

1. Ostroumov S. A.  Biological filtering and ecological machinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems: towards a holistic view. // Rivista di Biologia / Biology Forum. 1998. 91: 247-258.

2. Ostroumov S. A.  The Concept of Aquatic Biota as a Labile and Vulnerable Component of the Water Self-Purification System. – Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 372, 2000 , pp. 286–289. http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069991;

3. Ostroumov S. A. An aquatic ecosystem: a large-scale diversified bioreactor with a water self-purification function. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2000. Vol. 374, P. 514-516.   scribd.com/doc/49065542;  http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069997; the paper gave a new insight into the core functions and identity of ecosystem as a bioreactor to maintain water quality;

4. Ostroumov S.A.  Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002, vol. 469, p. 117-129; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52598579/;

5. Ostroumov S.A. Polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and  concluding remarks. Hydrobiologia. 2002. V. 469 (1-3): 203-204. http://www.scribd.com/doc/52627327/2H469p203-Polyfunctional-role-w-Addendum;

6. Ostroumov S.A. On the Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems: Elements of the Theory; Doklady Biological Sciences, 2004, v.396, No.1-6; pp.206-211. http://www.scribd.com/doc/48099028/4DBS-On-the-Biotic-Self-Purification-fulltext;

7. Ostroumov S. A.  Aquatic ecosystem as a  bioreactor: water purification and some  other functions.   –   Rivista di Biologia / Biology Forum, 2004, 97 (1): 67-78

8. Ostroumov S. A.  On some issues of maintaining water quality and self-purification.- Water Resources, 2005. Volume 32, Number 3, p. 305-313. http://www.scribd.com/doc/57511892/

9. Ostroumov S. A. Biocontrol of Water Quality: Multifunctional Role of Biota in Water Self-Purification. – Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 80, No. 13, pp. 2754–2761. —http://www.scribd.com/doc/49131150; http://www.scribd.com/doc/73175163/; DOI: 10.1134/S1070363210130086;

10. Остроумов С.А. Концепция водной биоты как лабильного и уязвимого звена системы самоочищения воды // Доклады  РАН (ДАН).  2000. Т.  372. № 2. С. 279-282.

11. Остроумов С.А. Водная  экосистема: крупноразмерный диверсифицированный биореактор с функцией самоочищения воды // ДАН, 2000, Т. 374,  №3. С.427-429. www.scribd.com/doc/57970728/;

12. Остроумов С.А. О биотическом самоочищении водных экосистем. Элементы теории. // Доклады академии наук (ДАН), (2004), том 396. № 1, с. 136–141. scribd.com/doc/57774996/; http://sites.google.com/site/scipaperdan2004selfpurificat/;

13. Остроумов С.А. Биологический механизм самоочищения в природных водоемах и водотоках: теория и практика //   Успехи современной биологии.   2004. Т.124. №5. С. 429-442. http://scipeople.ru/publication/67095/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/57695131/

14. Остроумов С.А. О некоторых вопросах поддержания качества воды и ее самоочищения // Водные ресурсы. 2005. т. 32. № 3. С. 337-347.

15. Остроумов С.А. Элементы теории биоконтроля качества воды: фактор экологической безопасности источников водоснабжения (=Elements of the theory of biocontrol of water quality: a factor in the ecological safety of the sources of water) //  Химическая и биологическая безопасность. 2008. № 5-6. с.36-39. http://rudocs.exdat.com/docs/index-326746.html

16. Ostroumov S.A.  Biotic Mechanism of Self-purification of Freshwater and Marine Water. (Ecological Studies, Hazards, Solutions, vol. 9) Мoscow: МAX Press. 2004.  96 p., Bibliogr. 59-85. Abstract in English. Section in English: p.53-58;  ISBN 5-317-01120-5.; http://scipeople.com/publication/99362/; In Russian:

Остроумов С.А. Биотический механизм самоочищения пресных и морских вод. Элементы теории и приложения = Biotic mechanism of self-purification of freshwater and marine water. http://scipeople.com/publication/99362/; М.: МАКС Пресс. 2004.  96 с. Библиогр.: c. 59-85. ISBN 5-317-01120-5.

17. Ostroumov S.A.  Pollution, Self-purification and Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems. Мoscow: МAX Press.  2005.  100 p.  Bibliogr.: 63-89. Glossary. Extended English abstract (p. 57-62), ISBN 5-317-01213-9. In Russian:

Загрязнение, самоочищение и восстановление водных экосистем = Pollution, self-purification and restoration of aquatic ecosystems. М.: МАКС Пресс. 2005.  100 с.,  Библиогр.: с.63-89. ISBN 5-317-01213-9.

18. Ostroumov S.A.  Aquatic organisms in water self-purification and biogenic migration of elements. Moscow. MAX Press. 2008. 200 p.  ISBN 978-5-317-02625-7. http://scipeople.com/publication/68016/. In Russian:

Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов. М. МАКС-Пресс. 2008. 200 с. Предисловие члена-корр. РАН В.В. Малахова. Библиогр.: с.155-191. (Серия: Наука. Образование. Инновации. Выпуск 9). ISBN 978-5-317-02625-7. http://scipeople.com/publication/68016/.

Some relevant sites:

19 Making water sustainable: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/06/making-water-sustainable.html;

20 Aquatic ecosystems… http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/aquatic-ecosystems-and-water.html;

21 Water quality… http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/water-quality-ecosystems-more-facts-to.html

**

**

About the author (Dr. S.A.O., Fulbright Award winner):

http://www.scribd.com/doc/80074854/

http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

Twitter: http://twitter.com/Sergeiost

Citation of this author:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/world-wide-and-international-citing-of.html

 

Key words:

reservoirs, rivers, lakes, seas, estuaries, Biotic Mechanism, Self-purification, Freshwater, Marine Water, Aquatic organisms, water, Pollution, Restoration, Aquatic Ecosystems,

 

Amazing grace: nature’s machine to treat water, to purify water

Amazing grace: nature’s machine to treat water, to purify water

The series of publications authored by Dr. S.A. Ostroumov (M.V. Lomonosov Moscow University) discovered the ecosystem’s machinery that functions as a hi-tech mechanism to make water clear and pure, safe for human consumption. This was a secret of water quality and sustainability. This secret was discovered.  In the table given at some of the sites mentioned below, the reference to the key publications are given. Also, examples are given of the papers that cited  Dr. S. Ostroumov’s works.   These works were cited by experts and scientists from countries as diverse as U.S.A., France, U.K., Germany, Italy, Spain, Poland, Australia, Argentina, China, India…

See more detail at:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/54504932/;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/06/amazing-grace-natures-machine-to-treat.html;

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants.

 

 

Background.

In the previous parts of this series of the material posted, it was explained why it is so important to analyze the issues of aquatic environment, water quality, and related issues of how chemicals interact with aquatic organisms (see Part 1, [1]). Also, it was shown that aquatic organisms contribute a lot to improving water quality, as exemplified by the organisms that are filter-feeders (Part 2, [2]).

Goal.
In this material (which is item 3 to continue the series of previous posts on Environment, Water and Ecology [1, 2]), the goal is to consider additional eye-opening information on chemical pollutants of water, especially on the chemicals that until recently were considered as relatively safe, namely, synthetic surfactants.

Location in industrial products.

These chemicals – surfactants – are components of many industrial products of broad use: laundry detergents, shampoo, liquid soap, dish washing liquid detergents, cosmetics, car cosmetics, pipe washing mixtures (including pipes of various use, e.g., pipes for milk and pipes for gasoline), liquids for fire extinguishers, and even pesticide mixtures of broad use in agriculture, horticulture, and in making lawns and playing grounds for golf to look nice.

Variety of names.

These chemicals are known under various names: surfactants, detergents, tensides, surface-active substances, surface active agents.

Quantity. Discharge that pollutes the environment.

The daily discharge of surfactants to waste waters is more than 10 g per an average inhabitant of urbanized areas, which means a discharge of 10 thousand kilogram in a city of 1 million people, which is equal to 22 thousand pound every day or more than 6 million pound annually!

Safe or not?

Until recently the synthetic surfactants were considered as relatively safe chemicals. Their level of environmental hazard was considered far lower than the environmental hazards from the champions of pollution, the notorious ecotoxicants: heavy metals, chlororganic products, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), insecticides, herbicides, just to list a few …

Innovation and eye-opening discovery.

The point is that recent research [3 – 5] demonstrated that it was a wrong opinion. A key issue is the issue of criteria to use for assessment of  the environmental hazards of chemicals. Recently, a development of new criteria was made [3].
These criteria gave attention not only to easily visible lethal effects of chemicals (increase in mortality of the organisms tested in the experiments) but also to less noticeable sublethal effects (which decrease functional performance of the organisms and finally their health). Moreover, more attention was given to the ecosystem health.

New experiments showed a variety of negative effects of surfactants on bacteria and cyanobacteria, algae, higher plants and invertebrates, including mussels and oysters that are key organisms that are being grown in aquaculture [3-5].
The results on the new approach, and new experiments, were presented in a series of papers [4 ] and the book [5 ]. The results demonstrated that the synthetic surfactants pose a more serious hazard to environment, especially water environment [3 – 5], than it was previously thought.

This is the book [5], in which a large amount of innovative results of bioassay of synthetic surfactants and detergents is presented. As it was mentioned, the experiments discovered many negative effects of these chemicals on bacteria and cyanobacteria, algae, higher plants and aquatic invertebrates.

Bottom line.

As a matter of fact, the discovery is: a new hazard to environment, a new priority in preventing negative effects of chemical pollution, in prevention of deterioration of water quality.

Recognition: international scientific community.

The book mentioned and the related papers were cited by scientists of a number of countries as diverse as U.S.A., Germany, U.K., Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Austria, Spain, Turkey, China, Slovakia, and Argentina (in arbitrary order) [6].

Location of the laboratories.

This research was carried out at Moscow State University (Russia), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (U.K.), University of New York (U.S.A.), University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Institute of Biology of Southern Seas (Crimea, Ukraine). A concise summary was presented in [7].

Foam and surfactants: a contrasting variety of connotations, including Venus, or Aphrodite.

According to legends of the ancient Greek mythology, a foam produced by sea water was a place of birth of the goddess of love, Aphrodite (Venus in mythology of ancient Rome). Love (to Simonetta Vespucci, nicknamed la bella Simonetta) and the legend on Venus inspired a genius painter of Renaissance, Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (c. 1445 – 1510), to create one of the most charming images of the cultural heritage of mankind: The Birth of Venus (in Italian: Nascita di Venere; 1486). However, the research project and the book that summarized its results and was mentioned above added some less charming connotations to another type of foam, namely the foam produced by synthetic surfactants.

Location of this post in the series of posts.

This post is No.3 in the series on Environment, Water and Ecology. The previous posts were:

[1] Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography.

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography


[2] on the discovery of the key role of organisms in making water clear http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/14/discovery-of-the-key-role-of-organisms-that-filter-water-and-make-it-clear/

**

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND KEY SITES:
[1] Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography.

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography


[2] on the discovery of the key role of organisms in making water clear http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/14/discovery-of-the-key-role-of-organisms-that-filter-water-and-make-it-clear/
[3] new criteria for environmental hazards: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60891549; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49088234; www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12852181; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52636721/
[4] series of papers on ecotoxicology of surfactants and detergents: http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065593; http://www.scribd.com/doc/59417067/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52634169/; http://www.springerlink.com/content/p7754h672w814m30/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45914806; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45958156/; scribd.com/doc/59544597/;
[5] on the book Biological Effects of Surfactants : http://www.scribd.com/doc/64066178/;
[6] on citation: www.scribd.com/doc/54504932
[7] summary: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60757545;

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

On the author: http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

Key words:
Venus, Aphrodite, love, goddess, environment, detergents, surfactants, tensides, surface active substances, pollutants, ecotoxicology, environmental, chemistry, water, sustainability; aquatic, ecosystem services, marine, resources, environmental safety, protection, hydrosphere, pollution, control, prevention, decontamination, book, biotesting, bioassay, phytotest, phytotoxicity, ecology, improving, water quality, environmental sciences, purification, self-purification, ecosystem health, freshwater, streams, water bodies, pollution control, sublethal, hazard assessment, aquaculture,

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography


Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology?
Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography.
About 400 billion gallons water is used worldwide each day. The goal of this material is to consider some publications in ecology and environmental science that are focused on aquatic ecosystems and their role in maintaining high level of water quality [see sites 1 – 4]. In pristine aquatic bodies – both marine and freshwater ecosystems – why is water pure, transparent, clear, of high water quality?
Until recently, the scientific fundamentals of this issue have not been completely understood. They were not understood until the recent series of papers authored by a scientist of M.V.Lomonosov Moscow University (see [2, 4]).
In this series of articles, what are the main ACHIEVEMENTS? The key achievements are making a new conceptualization and formulating a multi-aspect theory of how aquatic ecosystems and their biological communities with organisms of many biological species work towards improving water quality. These became the key achievements that were presented in the author’s publications [1-4, and therein].
To facilitate the innovative analysis and formulating a new theory, the author proposed some new scientific terminology [3] .
What are the relevant DISCOVERIES? They are some individual steps towards building this new conceptualization. They are 18 steps (discoveries) that were listed and described in [1].
Many experts think that the wars of future will perhaps be wars for water – in more precise terms, the wars for clear waters, for waters of good water quality. The theory mentioned above is perhaps an encouraging victory in another war – the eternal war of knowledge against ignorance.

 

***
Bibliography and Key sites:
1. http://www.scribd.com/doc/83168032/INNOVATIONS-DISCOVERIES-in-ecology-environmental-sciences-biology-18-Items-w-shrt-List-in-English-List-of-Sites-in-Other-Languages;
2. http://www.scribd.com/doc/82780861/Key-References-more-than-50-with-annotations-on-what-is-new-with-sites-of-free-texts-In-English-Dr-S-A-Ostroumov-Ecology-Environment-Water;
3. http://www.scribd.com/doc/82868065/BioMachinery-for-Maintaining-Water-Quality-and-Natural-Water-Self-purification-in-Marine-and-Estuarine-Systems-elements-of-a-qualitative-theory;
4. http://www.scribd.com/doc/79546542/Bibliography-in-English-Environmental-Science-Ecology-Biology-List-with-annotations-http-www-scribd-com-doc-79546542;

***

Key words:
Ecology, improving, water quality, fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography, environmental sciences, purification, self-purification, ecosystem health, ecosystem services, freshwater, marine, aquatic, resources, streams, water bodies, pollution control,