New conceptualization and terminology proposed: Biomachinery. Cyborgs vs. Biomachinery.
In 1998, the author invented the term ‘biomachinery’, and published it in 1999 (see the second part of this file). Now it is clear that the term was useful and survived the test of time. This term means a kind of hybrid of two things: biological and non-biological ones. To a degree, this is relevant to what is called Cyborg. Examples of Cyborgs are Terminators and The Borg from Star Trek.
It is useful to look at what is written about Cyborgs in Wikipedia:
A cyborg, short for “cybernetic organism”, is a being with both biological and artificial (e.g. electronic, mechanical or robotic) parts. The term was coined in 1960 when Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline used it in an article about the advantages of self-regulating human-machine systems in outer space. …… Fictional cyborgs are portrayed as a synthesis of organic and synthetic parts….
Fictional cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical (e.g. the Cybermen in the Doctor Who franchise or The Borg from Star Trek); or as almost indistinguishable from humans (e.g. the Terminators from the Terminator films, the “Human” Cylons from the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica etc.)
The 1970s television series The Six Million Dollar Man featured one of the most famous fictional cyborgs, referred to as a bionic man. … Cyborgs are also often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart (military forms may have inbuilt weapons, among other things).
[The end of the cited text from Wikipedia].
Cyborgs in films are sometimes very bad guys.
Very often they look like humans.
These two characteristics make the idea of Cyborg very different from the idea of biomachinery.
Biomachinery is not associated with any specific or familiar form of body; and biomachinery is not doing any harm, on the contrary, it is doing a very good thing – upgrading water quality, purifying water, – which is one of key ecosystem services to benefit mankind.
The following is a more scientific material on biomachinery.
New conceptualization and terminology in science of ecology: Biomachinery (the author is Dr. Sergei A. Ostroumov, Moscow State University)
Новый термин. В научную терминологию введен новый термин: Biomachinery (автор термина: д.б.н. С.А. Остроумов, МГУ им. М.В.Ломоносова)
How the term ‘biomachinery’ was introduced to environmental and biological science: it happened in 1999. See the abstract: Ostroumov S.A. Integrity-oriented approach to ecological biomachinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems. – Limnology and Oceanography: Navigating into the Next Century. February 1-5, 1999, Santa Fe, New Mexico. ASLO (American Society of Limnology and Oceanography), Waco, TX. 1999. P. 134;
Dr. S.A. Ostroumov initiated and chaired the session “Ecosystems as Hi-Tech Water Purification Biomachinery” at the ASLO Meeting Limnology and Oceanography: Navigating into the Next Century. February 1-5, 1999, Santa Fe, New Mexico, the U.S.A.; it is the first time that he introduced the scientific term ‘biomachinery’.
The examples of the author’s publications where the term ‘biomachinery’ was used and discussed in a number of publications authored by S.A.Ostroumov – the list of the publications is presented below.
S.A. Ostroumov. Biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine and estuarine systems: elements of a qualitative theory. – International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography, ISSN 0973-2667, Vol.1, No.1 (2006), pp. 111-118 © Research India Publications; http://www.ripublication.com/ijoo.htm; [Laboratory of Physico-Chemistry of Biomembranes, Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Vorob’evy Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia].
Abstract: Fundamental elements are formulated for a qualitative theory of the multi-functional (polyfunctional) role of the biota in maintaining self-purification and water quality in aquatic ecosystems. The elements of the theory covers the following: (1) sources of energy for the mechanisms of self-purification; (2) the main functional blocks of the system of self-purification; (3) the list of the main processes that are involved; (4) analysis of the degree of participation of the main large taxons; (5) degree of reliability and the main mechanisms providing the reliability; (6)regulation of the processes; (7) the response of the system towards the external influences(man-made impacts); (8) the analogy between ecosystems and a bioreactor; and (9)conclusions relevant to the practice of biodiversity conservation. In support of the theory, results are given of the author’s experiments which demonstrated the ability of some pollutants (surfactants, detergents, and some others) to inhibit the water filtration activity of marine filter-feeders (namely, the bivalve mollusks mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus edulis, and oysters Crassostrea gigas). Key words: Ecosystems, pollution, water quality, water self-purification, filter-feeders. Abbreviations: LD – liquid detergent; SD- synthetic detergent; SDS – sodiumdodecylsulphate; TDTMA – tetradecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide;
http://www.scribd.com/doc/61779321/8-Legendary-discoveries-biomachinery; New Discovery: BIOMACHINERY.
Ostroumov S.A. Filter-feeders as part of ecological biomachinery to purify water // Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 2005. Vol. 29/2 (Stuttgart,E.Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung), p.1072-1075; Fundamental key innovation. The author introduced a new fundamental concept in the science of hydrobiology and aquatic ecology: biomachinery of water self-purification. The aquatic invertebrates that are filter-feeders constitute a vital part of the complex of aquatic organisms which are involved in the biomachinery of improving water quality. http://www.schweizerbart.de/pubs/books/es/verhandlun-167002902-desc.html; http://www.borntraeger-cramer.de/publications/detail/isbn/9783510540662/XXIX-Congress-Lahti-Finland-8—14-August-2004; http://www.springerlink.com/index/R9PTJEQ5FK8VLA6M.pdf ; http://blog.researchgate.net/masterblog/619_Vital_role_of_aquatic_organisms_in_improving_water_quality.
How the term ‘biomachinery’ was introduced to science: it happened in 1999. See the abstract: Ostroumov S.A. Integrity-oriented approach to ecological biomachinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems. – Limnology and Oceanography: Navigating into the Next Century. February 1-5, 1999, Santa Fe, New Mexico. ASLO, Waco, TX. 1999. P. 134; Dr. S.A. Ostroumov initiated and chaired the session “Ecosystems as Hi-Tech Water Purification Biomachinery” at the ASLO Meeting Limnology and Oceanography: Navigating into the Next Century. February 1-5, 1999, Santa Fe, New Mexico; it is the first time that he introduced the scientific term ‘biomachinery’.
Book: Ostroumov S.A. Aquatic organisms in water self-purification. Moscow. Max-Press, 2008, 200 p. (The Russian version of the title: Гидробионты в самоочищении вод). Chapter 1 was written in English. On page 4, the title of Chapter 1 is: “Theory of biocontrol of water quality and biomachinery of self-purification”.
The book got excellent evaluations in the published reviews:
The list of the reviews (some of them in Russian):
Зимнюков В.А. Рецензия на книгу Остроумова С.А. «Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов» // Водное хозяйство России: проблемы, технологии, управление. 2009. № 1. С. 103-106. ISSN 1999-4508. http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=12957127 ( = Zimnyukov V.A. Review of the book: S.A. Ostroumov. Gidrobionty v samoochischenii vod i biogennoy migratsii elementov // Water Sector of Russia: Problems, Technologies, Management (=Vodnoe Khozyaystvo Rossii. 2009. № 1. p.103-106).
Капица А.П. Kapitsa A.P. (член-корр. РАН) Review of the book: S.A. Ostroumov. Aquatic organisms in water self-purification and biogenic migration of elements. Moscow. MAX Press. 2008. 200 p. – Ecologica, 2009. V.16 (53). P.8. на английском языке.
Розенберг Г.С. (чл.-корр. РАН, директор Института экологии Волжского бассейна РАН) Рецензия на кн.: С. А. Остроумов. Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов // Биология моря. 2009. том 35, No. 3, С. 237-238. [ = Rozenberg G.S. Book Review: S. A. Ostroumov. Gidrobionty v samoochishchenii vod i biogennoj migracii elementov // Biologiya morya (Russian Journal of Marine Biology). 2009. Vol. 35 (3). P. 237-238].
Ермаков В.В. (профессор, Заслуженный деятель науки РФ, зав. лабораторией Института РАН) О книге С.А.Остроумова «Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов» // Вода: химия и экология. 2009. №8. с.25-29. Библиогр. 26 назв. Аннотация: Представлена новая теория биомеханизмов самоочищения воды, изложенная в книге доктора биологических наук С.А.Остроумова «Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов». Гидробионты (водные организмы) активно участвуют в процессах, ведущих к очищению воды. В них участвуют почти все группы живых организмов, что анализируется в статье с различных сторон. При разработке теории были использованы результаты опытов автора, изучавшего воздействие поллютантов на живые организмы. Изложенная теория служит инновационной основой для создания новых экотехнологий очищения воды и повышения ее качества с использованием водных организмов.
Подробнее об авторе книги: http://www.famous-scientists.ru/3732/;
(= Chemical and Biological Safety)No.
SUMMARY. As it was mentioned above, the term ‘biomachinery’ was a part of the name for a scientific session that was initiated, organized, and chaired by Dr. S.Ostroumov in 1999 in the U.S.A. It was mentioned in Internet and immediately attracted attention. Many people liked it. Now this word became a new part of English language. Now this word is in use.
Biomachinery is the term that the author, Dr. S.A.O., applied to better describe how ecosystems, especially aquatic ecosystem, function. The combined effect of collective functioning of many aquatic organisms was described in detail in his scientific publications. As a result of this team activity of water living creatures, water self-purification occurs. The efficient functioning of the aquatic biota (and ecosystem as a whole) has amazing similarity to hi-tech multi-component machinery. On this basis, the author proposed the term ‘biomachinery’, and applied it to characterize the functioning of aquatic ecosystems toward improving water quality.
interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:
ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,
environment, biotechnology, gold, nanoparticles, water quality, pollution control, future wars, resources, sustainability, surfactants, detergents, cyborg, organisms, ecosystem,
KEY WORDS: biomachinery, new terminology, environmental sciences, biology, Moscow State University, S.A.Ostroumov, cybernetics, terminator, cyborg, the borg, robotic, human-machine systems, Star Trek, ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,