An Amphiphilic Substance Inhibits the Mollusk Capacity to Filter out Phytoplankton Cells from Water

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An amphiphilic substance inhibits the mollusk capacity to filter out phytoplankton cells from water. – Biology Bulletin, 2001, Volume 28, No. 1, p. 95-102.

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An Amphiphilic Substance Inhibits the Mollusk Capacity to Filter out Phytoplankton Cells from Water

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Abstract

The effect of synthetic anionic surface active substance (SAS) sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 4 mg/l) on the kinetics of water filtration by mussel Mytilus edulis was studied. A suspension of algae Isochrysis galbana was added to the vessel with the mussels, and their filtration activity was measured by counting the concentration of the algae cells in the experimental vessels. Algae concentration was measured every 30 min for an hour and a half. The inhibiting effect on the mollusk filtration rate (FR) was qualitatively described. After the first 30 min filtration at 4 mg/l initial SDS concentration, the cell density was 322% of the control. The inhibiting effect was observed later as well. Due to FR inhibition in the vessels with the above specified initial SDS concentration, the algae cell density was 6.4 and 14.7 times that of the control after 1 and 1.5 h, respectively. Thus, SAS SDS can decrease the natural capacity of aquatic ecosystems for self-purification and disturb other aspects of ecosystem functioning through inhibiting the filtration activity of mussels. The obtained data are discussed in the context of environment and hydrosphere protection from pollution.

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Inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes

Inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes.

link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10750-005-1200-7

 

Hydrobiologia, 2006, Volume: 556, Pages: 381-386.

link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10750-005-1200-7;

In 2006, an important series of experiments on ecotoxicology of detergents was published in the journal HYDROBIOLOGIA, (2006, Volume: 556, Pages: 381-386) by an international team of researchers. This was the first paper that reported the experiments that showed that all three main kinds of synthetic surfactants (detergent chemicals) slow down the filtration of water by key marine organisms, filter-feeders, bivalves, namely, the marine mussels of the Atlantic Ocean (Mytilus edulis). http://www.scribd.com/doc/45958156

 

Online, key links to this article:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/215586803_;

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/215586803_Inhibition_of_mussel_suspension_feeding_by_surfactants_of_three_classes;

Authors:
Sergei A. Ostroumov, John Widdows,
Authors affiliation:
Moscow State University, Plymouth Marine Laboratory,
Tags:
marine mussels, Mytilus edulis, surfactants, detergents, toxicology, protection of environment, water quality, pollution, marine, aquatic, new, water, filtration,

Article: Imbalance of Factors Providing Control of Unicellular Plankton Populations Exposed to Anthropogenic Impact.

Article: Imbalance of Factors Providing Control of Unicellular Plankton Populations Exposed to Anthropogenic Impact.

2001Volume 379 pp. 341-3.43;

S. A. Ostroumov

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1011600213221;

DOI  10.1023/A:1011600213221;

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ABSTRACT: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/10614342_Imbalance_of_factors;

Ostroumov S.A. Imbalance of factors providing control of unicellular plankton populations exposed to anthropogenic impact. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001. Vol. 379, P. 341-343. 4 tables. Bibliogr.12 refs. (Translated from DAN 2001. Vol. 379. P.136-138). ISSN 0012-4966 (Print) 1608-3105 (Online). PMID: 12918370 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]. The paper presents and analyzes new experimental data on the effects of chemical pollution of aquatic medium on the abundance of unicellular plankton organisms. The following 6 types of effects of filter-feeders and chemical pollutants [surfactants and detergents (mixtures)] on phytoplankton organisms were found (examples were given in this paper in Tab.2): (1) Inhibition of growth (and abundance); (2) Growth stimulation in the presence of surfactants and detergents; (3) Decrease in abundance as a result of elimination of plankton cells from water by the freshwater mollusks Unio tumidus and rotifers; (4) Abundance decrease as a result of water filtration by the marine mollusks Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and Crassostrea gigas; (5) Decrease in the efficiency of cell elimination from water caused by the TX-100-induced (5 mg/l) inhibition of the filtration activity of the freshwater mollusks U. tumidus; (6) Decrease in the efficiency of cell elimination from water as a result of inhibition of the filtration activity of the marine mollusks Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas induced by surfactants and Avon Herbal Care (hair shampoo). A new parameter and formula were suggested: the efficiency of cell elimination from water, ECE. The following maximum values of ECE were found (at the concentrations of the chemical, mg/l, in brackets): (1) Detergent OMO, Unio tumidus, 186.7 (50); (2) Detergent Losk-Universal, Mytilus galloprovincialis, 551.7 (7); (3) Detergent Tide-Lemon, Mytilus galloprovincialis, 206.9 (50); (4) Detergent IXI, M. galloprovincialis, 157.8 (10); (5) Detergent Deni-Automat, Crassostrea gigas, 10 800.0 (30); (6) Detergent Lanza, Crassostrea gigas, 261.7 (20); (7) Detergent Vesna-Delikat, Crassostrea gigas, 200.0 (1); 

The tables in the paper: 

Factors of regulation of unicellular plankton abundance (Tab.1); effects of surfactants and detergents on phytoplankton abundance (Tab.2); 7 detergents inhibit filtration of 3 species of marine and freshwater molluscs (Tab.3); Mytilus galloprovincialis eliminates from water the cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and algae Pavlova lutheri = M. lutheri as a result of filtration (comparing the 2 processes at the same time, Tab. 4). 

 

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 CONCLUSIONS. The results obtained in this work demonstrated and proved that certain pollutants might cause a substantial imbalance of the factors controlling unicellular plankton populations. Direct and indirect (mediated by organisms-consumers) effects of certain surfactant-containing mixtures on unicellular plankton could sum with each other, giving rise to mutual amplification. This may cause a complete imbalance of the system. The conclusions made in this work may be applied to unicellular plankton of both marine and freshwater ecosystems, including ecosystems subjected to eutrophication. The results contribute to issues of environmental safety and resource use sustainability. DOI 10.1023/A:1011600213221; www.springerlink.com/index/QGJ756467J2R7470.pdf

tags:

water_quality, water, unio, tumidus, theory, sustainable_use, suspension_feeders, shampoo, services, self-purification, regulation, quality, pollution, pollutants, plankton_populations, phytoplankton_control, pavlova, mytilus, lutheri, gigas, galloprovincialis, filter-feeders, eutrophication_prevention, environmental_safety, ecosystems, ecosystem, ecological_stability, detergents, crassostrea, control, bioeffects, aquatic, ecosystems, aquatic_biota, aquaculture, marine, гидробиология, моллюски, качество воды, самоочищение, аквакультура, марикультура,

Unio tumidus,  Mytilus galloprovincialis,  Mytilus edulis,  Crassostrea gigas, 

Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification.

Review article: Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002. 469: 117-129.

link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1015559123646

DOI 10.1023/A:1015559123646;

Most important online mentions. Abstract and content of the article. Citation of the article (selected examples).

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2015/01/inhibitory-analysis-of-top-down-control.html

Key links:

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Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying …

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Publication » Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification.

 
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20 readers on Mendeley, by January 2, 2015;
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This paper is on the short prestigious, honorable list entitled ‘Top papers, books on aquatic ecology, ecotoxicology’ at the largest global catalog, WorldCatalog. [WorldCat itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries. It contains more than 300 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets] [source:
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Ostroumov S.A. Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002. 469: 117-129.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/200587396_ ;
DOI 10.1023/A:1015559123646;
Full text online:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/200587396_Inhibitory_analysis_of_top-down_control_new_keys_to_studying_eutrophication_algal_blooms_and_water_self-purification;
https://www.academia.edu/2922575/Inhibitory_analysis_of_top-down_control_new_keys_to_studying_eutrophication_algal_blooms_and_water_self-purification ;
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http://scipeople.com/uploads/materials/4389/2Hydrobiologia469p117w%20Addendum.DOC;
KEYWORDS: self-purification, filter-feeders, surfactants, detergents, benthic, bivalves, aquatic, ecosystems, eutrophication, algal, blooms, hazards, chemical pollution, water quality, phytoplankton, marine, freshwater, invertebrates, clearance rate, biological effects, xenobiotics, ecotoxicants, pollutants, sustainable use, aquatic resources, aquaculture, mariculture, ecosystem services, environmental science, ecotoxicology, pollution control, bioassay, mussels, oysters, man-made effects, anthropogenic, biodiversity, clearance rate, LAS, linear alkylbenzene sulphonate, NOEC, No observable effect consentration, QSAR, quantitative structure – activity relationship, SFG, Scope for Growth, SDS, sodium dodecyl sulphate, TDTMA, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, TX100, Triton X-100, sublethal effects, pellets, faeces, pseudofaeces, suspended matter, preventing, algal blooms, sponges, polychaetes, molluscs, echinoderms, larvae of insects, ascidians, alkylsulfates, nonionic surfactants, nonylphenols, bioassay, Cladocera, Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia dubia, anilazin, benomyl, bentazon, cyfluthrin, dimethoat, lindan, maneb, zineb, ziram, pesticides, inhibitory effects on feeding, mortality, EC50, LC50, endosulfan, diazinon, methyl parathion, lindan, dichlobenil, Unio tumidus, U. pictorum, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas
ABSTRACT (A SHORT VERSION):
Top-down control is an important type of interspecies interactions in food webs. It is especially important for aquatic ecosystems. Phytoplankton grazers contribute to the top-down control of phytoplankton populations. The paper is focused on the role of benthic filter feeders in the control of plankton populations as a result of water filtering and the removal of cells of plankton from the water column. New data on the inhibitory effects of surfactants and detergents on benthic filter-feeders (Unio tumidus, U. pictorum, Mytilus galloprovincialis, M. edulis, and Crassostrea gigas) are presented and discussed. Importance and efficiency of that approach to the problems of eutrophication and water self-purification is pointed out. Chemical pollution may pose a threat to the natural top-down control of phytoplankton and water self-purification process. The protection of that natural top-down control is considered an important prerequisite for sustainable use of aquatic resources.
The paper was cited by international scientists, including:
Bryan W. Brooks, Timothy Riley, Ritchie Taylor. Water quality of effluent-dominated stream ecosystems: ecotoxicological, hydrological, and management considerations
Hydrobiologia 2006; 556(1):365-379;
Chatzinikolaou Y. and Lazaridou M. Identification of the self-purification stretches of the Pinios River, Central Greece. – Mediterranean Marine Science, 2007, Vol. 8 (2), p. 19-32.
GL Wei, ZF Yang, BS Cui, B. Li, H. Chen, JH Bai, S.K. Dong [GuoLiang Wei, ZhiFeng Yang, BaoShan Cui, Bing Li, He Chen, JunHong Bai and ShiKui Dong] Impact of Dam Construction on Water Quality and Water Self-Purification Capacity of the Lancang River, China. – Water Resour Manage (2009) 23:1763–1780.
Samal, N. R.; Mazumdar, A.; Johnk, K. D.; Peeters, F. Assessment of ecosystem health of tropical shallow waterbodies in eastern India using turbulence model.-Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, Volume 12, Number 2, April 2009, pp. 215-225.
Bhatti, Zafar. Lake and Reservoir Management. – Water Environment Research [Water Environ. Res.]. Oct 2004.Vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 2106-2154.
ABBREVIATIONS: CR – clearance rate; LAS – linear alkylbenzene sulphonate; NOEC – No observable effect consentration; QSAR – quantitative structure – activity relationship; SFG – Scope for Growth; SDS – sodium dodecyl sulphate; TDTMA – tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide; TX100 – Triton X-100
ADDENDUM TO THE ABSTRACT (EXTENDED VERSION of the abstract, or a condensed text of the article):
1. INTRODUCTION
By definition, the organisms of the two adjacent trophic levels interact with each other so that the organisms of the higher trophic level may produce some effect on the organisms of the lower trophic level. If the latter are not too abundant, the effects of the organisms of the higher level lead to limiting, decreasing or stabilizing the populations of the organisms of the lower trophic level. These effects might be considered a control or a partial control of the organisms of the lower trophic level. Many examples of interactions of that type were studied in various natural and experimental systems (Table 1). The significance of top-down control attributes additional importance to studies of the grazing activity of crustaceans (e.g., Sushchenya, 1975; Gutelmaher, 1986), rotifers (e.g., Monakov, 1998; Bul’on et al., 1999), protozoan plankton (e.g., Bul’on et al., 1999), and benthic invertebrates (e.g., Alimov, 1981; Donkin et al., 1989, 1991; Zaika, 1992; Ogilvie & Mitchell, 1995; Widdows et al., 1995a, Widdows et al., 1995b; Newell, 1999), and other invertebrates (Monakov, 1998).
In aquatic ecosystems, the problem of the control of the organisms of the lower trophic level (algae) is of outstanding importance because it is relevant to the problem of eutrophication. Also, control mechanisms are important in better understanding the problem of algal blooms, including the toxic algae blooms. To avoid over-simplification, we should realize that there are many factors that regulate the abundance of algal populations; top-down control is only one of them.
Many species of invertebrates of both plankton and benthos belong to the higher trophic level as compared with algae and cyanobacteria of phytoplankton. As for zooplankton species and their filter-feeding activity, an important body of information was presented and analyzed in (Sushchenya, 1975; Gutelmaher, 1986). Filtering activity of benthic species has also been studied (e.g., Alimov, 1981; Ostroumov et al., 1997, 1998).
In this paper we focus on some species of invertebrates of benthos, which are filter-feeders and in this capacity contribute to the top-down control of phytoplankton.
2. ROLE OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES IN FILTERING WATER AND RESULTING PHYTOPLANKTON GRAZING: FILTER-FEEDERS
The diversity of benthic organisms that filter water and remove algal cell and other particulate matter is broad. Filter-feeders inhabit the bottom of both freshwater and marine ecosystems. To facilitate broader general conclusions, in this paper we will consider both freshwater and marine organisms. The range of filter-feeders includes sponges, polychaetes, molluscs, echinoderms, larvae of many insects, ascidians, and some other invertebrates.
There are many examples of massive scale water filtering by benthos (e.g., Table 2; see also: Alimov, 1981; Ostroumov & Fedorov, 1999). It was shown that in some man-made reservoirs the total volume of water is filtered by benthic bivalves 2-24 times annually (e.g., Konstantinov, 1979). In a shallow lake in New Zealand the total volume is filtered during a time period of less than 2 days (Ogilvie & Mitchell, 1995). Equally massive filtering activity was discovered for the benthic sponges in the coastal waters of Lake Baikal which stores 22, 995 km3 of superb clean water (for comparison, the amount of the annual world consumption of freshwater was 3, 240 km3, and the annual freshwater withdrawal in Europe was 359 km3, in North and Central America 697 km3; the data for year 1987) (World Resources 1995-1995).
As a result of water filtering, algal cells are removed from the water column. It is important that some filter-feeders (e.g., bivalves) remove more algae than they need for feeding purposes. Excessive amounts of algae biomass and other particulate matter are excreted in the form of pellets (to distinguish them from regular faeces they are called pseudofaeces) which are larger in size than the algal cells and therefore they settle to the bottom rapidly. The amount of pseudofaeces may exceed the amount of the assimilated food manyfold. As a result, the total activity of bivalve molluscs in removing algal biomass from the water column and in making water clearer is far beyond just the trophic needs of bivalves.
The total weight of organic matter that is removed from a water column and deposited as bottom sediments is measured as high as kilograms per m2 per year. E.g., in the ecosystem of the man-made reservoir Volgogradskoe, the amount of the formerly suspended matter that was removed by molluscs from the water column and finally sedimented was 8.3 kg m-2 annually (Kondratiev, 1976; cited in Konstantinov, 1979). For the entire reservoir that is located in the center of the largest European river, the amount of sedimented matter was as high as 29 million tons.
3. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF XENOBIOTICS AND POLLUTANTS: A DECREASE IN WATER FILTRATION AND ASSOCIATED PHYTOPLANKTON GRAZING
Man-made chemicals can produce strong inhibition of water filtering by benthic molluscs or impair the normal pattern of opening bivalves which is needed to maintain the efficient filtration of water. Some examples of those effects are given in Table 3. More examples could be found in literature (e.g., Stuijfzand, 1995; Ostroumov, 1998). The experiments were usually conducted using some phytoplankton species as the organism that is being removed from the water column during the filtration experiment. Thus, in experiments with bivalve Mytilus edulis, the algae Isochrysis galbana are often used (Donkin et al., 1997; Ostroumov et al., 1997; 1998). In our experiments with M. galloprovincialis (see below) we have observed a xenobiotic-induced decrease in grazing phytoplankton cells of Monochrysis lutheri and Dunaliella viridis. In our experiments with freshwater bivalves Unio tumidus and U. pictorum, we described some pollutant-induced inhibition of the removal of green algae Scenedesmus quadricauda and cyanobacteria Synechocystis.
The major part of our experiments were done in the laboratory. Under field conditions, it was described that in polluted habitats the biomass and vitality of bivalves declined (Zaika, 1992), which means that their contribution to water filtering is negatively affected. It was possible to develop an integrative parameter, Scope for Growth (SFG) which enables the scientist to estimate the total amount of energy available for the population of mussels for its growth and reproduction (after deduction of the amount of energy is lost during respiration etc.) (Widdows et al., 1995a, 1995b). It was shown that in terms of the entire populations, in polluted habitats the reduced filtration and reduced intake of energy from digested plankton (and seston as a whole) led to the fact that SFG was reduced.
4. MORE SPECIFIC EXAMPLES AND NEW DATA: INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF SURFACTANTS
We have initiated a systematic study of the effects of another class of aquatic pollutants, namely surfactants, on the water-filtering activity of bivalves and on the resulting removal of algal cells from the water column.
Among the various organic chemicals that are entering the natural environment in large amounts (Yablokov & Ostroumov, 1983, 1985, 1991), surfactants play a significant role (Ostroumov, 1986; 1990; 1991; 1994 a; 1994b; Marcomini et al., 1988; Quiroga et al., 1989; Granmo et al, 1991; Fernandez et al., 199; Lewis, 1991; Takada & Ishiwatari, 1991; Chalaux et al., 1992; Terzic & Ahel, 1993). It was shown that surfactants produce negative and sometimes also stimulatory effects on cyanobacteria (Waterbury & Ostroumov, 1994), green algae (e.g., Goryunova & Ostroumov, 1986), diatoms (Ostroumov & Maertz-Wente, 1991), plant seedlings (Ostroumov, 1986; 1990; 1991; Nagel et al., 1987; Maximov et al., 1988; Telitchenko & Ostroumov, 1990), shrimp (Drewa et al., 1988), Daphnia magna and D. pulex (e.g., Maki & Bishop, 1979; Martinez et al., 1989), freshwater amphipods (Pantani et al., 1995), rotifers (Kartasheva & Ostroumov, 1998), fish (e.g., Versteeg & Shorter, 1992; Malcolm et al., 1995). Some data on the effects of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) on Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk (Bressan et al., 1989; Marin et al., 1993), Mytilus edulis (Granmo, 1972) and some other marine benthic species (Marin et al., 1991) are available. However, almost nothing was known about the effects of alkylsulfates, nonionic surfactants (derivatives of nonylphenols), and some other surfactants as well as detergents on the filtering activity of Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, Crassostrea gigas, Unio tumidus, and U. pictorum.
The purpose of the experimental part of this work was to obtain data on the effects of some surfactants and surfactant-containing products including detergents, on the ability of bivalves (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, Unio tumidus, and U. pictorum) to filter water and remove algal or other cells from it.
Freshwater mussels Unio sp. were collected in the Moscow River. Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected at the Black Sea. Crassostrea gigas were grown at a mariculture farm (the Black Sea, Institute of Biology of Southern Seas NANU). M. edulis were collected at the Exmouth estuary and kept in tanks with aeration , water flow and periodic automatic imitation of low tide (water was removed out of tanks for 3 h every day) (Dr. Donkin’s participation and help in the work with M. edulis is acknowledged).
The temperature in experiments with M. galloprovincialis and C. gigas was mostly 22-27 C, in the experiments with Unio sp. 18-20 C. The cell removal and the cell density during the filtration by molluscs was measured using Hitachi 200-20 spectrophotometer (experiments with Unio sp.) and SF-26 (LOMO) spectrophotometer (experiments with M. galloprovincialis and C. gigas). In experiments with M. edulis (temperature 16 C), the number of cells per unit of volume was measured using the Coulter counter ( Coulter Electronics, model Industrial D). When a sample of filtered water without adding algae was used, the Coulter count was usually below 200.
The clearance rate (CR) was calculated according to Widdows & Salkeld (1993) using the following equation:
CR (l h-1) = (Volume of water e.g. 2 l) x (loge C1 — logeC2)/time interval in h
where C1 and C2 are cell concentrations at the beginning and end of each time increment (e.g. 0.5 h).
Statistical analysis was performed using EXCEL software. For linear regression analysis, an option was used which gives an opportunity to fix the intercept at a predetermined value.
Several chemicals were used. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (molecular mass 288.38) was purchased from Fluka. The purity was > 99% (assayed by GC, analysis number 332533/1 395). Triton X-100 (TX100) (x = 9-10 ethoxy units, H2O < 1 %, residue on ignition, 0.2%, analysis number 43306/1 795) was purchased also from Fluka. Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TDTMA, molecular mass 336.4) was purchased from Sigma (St.Louis, Missouri, 63178 USA; lot 55H1322). Detergents used were available commercially.
Results of the experimentation were as following.
Freshwater bivalves, Unio tumidus and U. pictorum removed planktonic cells from water. The ability to do so was inhibited by surfactants of several types (Table 4), including TDTMA, and TX100 .
A marine species, M. galloprovincialis, was also efficient in removing from water cells of phytoplankton and unicellular organisms in general. Several surfactants as well as detergents which contain surfactants inhibited this ability of M. galloprovincialis (Table 4). The chemicals tested included surfactants TDTMA, SDS, and several detergents, such as Tide-Lemon, Lotos-Extra, Losk-Universal.
In experiments with M. edulis, after one hour of filtering, in the control set (clean water) the number of algal cells per unit of volume decreased to almost 5.6% of the initial level, which is a good example of how efficiently bivalves can control planktonic populations (Table 5). This is in accord with the large amount of data on the significant filtration rates of bivalves (Alimov, 1981; Monakov, 1998) and their impact on ecosystems (Zaika, 1992). In the important series of measurements, in the control beakers (filtration of unpolluted water) the number of algal cells decreased by a factor of 15.98, while in the beakers with SDS (1 mg l–1) the number of cells decreased by a factor of 7.93. Thus, the algal cell density in control was half that in the system at the initial concentration of 1 mg l–1. The difference increased by the end of the experiment.
When the initial concentration of SDS was 2 mg l–1, a substantial difference from the control set was observed after the first half-hour period (Table 6). After 65 min of filtering, the algal cell density in the control set was almost 1/3 that contained in the system with SDS.
Further increase of the initial concentration of SDS up to 4 mg l–1 caused a dramatic 3-times increase of the cell density over that in the control set after only 35 min of filtering. In 65-min of filtering, the difference was 6-fold, and following 95-min filtering – over 14-fold.
At the initial concentration of SDS 5 mg l–1, the difference between systems with and without SDS was over 16-fold after 125 min of filtering.
It was possible to calculate the clearance rate (CR), using a standard formula widely accepted in the literature (Donkin et al. 1989; 1991; Widdows & Salkeld, 1993).
The summary of the inhibitory effects shows, with a few exceptions, two general trends:
1) an increase in the initial concentration of SDS in the range of 0.5 to 5 mg l–1 gave rise to an the increase in the inhibitory effect on CR (Table 7);
2) at any given concentration of SDS, the highest effect took place during the first 30-min period, with some decrease in the inhibitory effect by the end of the experiment.
The latter trend, however, was not paralleled by a mitigation of the effect on the residual algal cell density in the water. When the cell density was considered, the difference from the control was maximal by the end of the experiment.
Using another chemical, a non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100, we obtained similar data with EC50 close to that of SDS (Table 8). At a concentration of 4 mg l–1, the inhibition of the clearance rate during the time period of 30 min after the beginning of the experiment was almost 10-fold, and during the later period of time, the inhibition was about 5-fold.
The data obtained in our study showed that the filtering activity of mussels demonstrated a more sensitive response than some other biotests we had used in our experiments in bioassaying SDS, including green algae (Goryunova & Ostroumov, 1986) and plant seedlings (Nagel et al., 1987). The filtering activity of mussels was also more sensitive to SDS than some of the traditional lethal biotests with aquatic invertebrates and fish which had been applied for studies of LAS and alkyl sulfates (Sivak et al., 1982; Ostroumov, 1991).
It is noteworthy that the inhibitory effect of SDS on CR was developed within a rather narrow range of SDS concentrations (1 to 5 mg l–1). That could be in accord with a hypothesis that the decrease in CR is at least in part the result of a behavioural response of mussels.
Our data on effects of SDS are in good agreement with the results obtained by other authors who studied effects of another anionic surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) on filtering rate. It was shown that in experiments with exposure for 48 h and 96 h the filtration rate of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was reduced when concentration of dissolved LAS was higher than 1.5 mg l–1 (Bressan et al., 1989). In our experiments the biotest was slightly more sensitive as we exposed the animals to the surfactant for 1.5 h prior to beginning measurements and observed some inhibition at the initial concentration of 1 mg l–1.
Bressan et al. (1989) studied also effects of LAS on the growth of mussels and on mortality and spermatozoids of freshwater bivalve molluscs. They observed some decrease in the increment of length of the major axis of the shell of mussels at concentrations of LAS as low as 0.25 and 0.5 mg l–1, but the effect required up to 70 days to be observed. No significant effects were found within 30 days of their experiments. The length of time that was necessary to reveal the effect was a limitation of the technique, however it was impressive to observe almost a 2-fold decrease in growth when the chronic experiment with a relatively low level of LAS (0.25 mg l–1 ) lasted for 160 days and more.
In a parallel experiment the same authors observed a 30% increase in the respiration of LAS-treated (220 days, 0.25 mg l–1 ) young mussels (Bressan et al., 1989). Unfortunately, they did not specify what they called young mussels.
Some decrease in filtering rate was observed in another set of experiments when the concentration of LAS was 0.25 mg l–1 , but the duration of the surfactant treatment was much longer (220 days) than in our experiment, and the size of mussels was again not specified (Bressan et al., 1989). Also, they have shown that, at a concentration of 1 mg l–1, LAS inhibited the filtration rate after 7 days of exposure. It seems important that in our experiments we observed effects after only 1.5 hours of exposure to the anionic surfactant.
The LC50 (48 h) was about 40 mg l–1 and LC50 (96 h) was about 1.7 mg l–1 (Bressan et al., 1989), which was much lower than in the case of freshwater bivalves Anodonta cygnea and Unio elongatulus. For the latter two species, LC50 (96 h) was about 200 mg l–1 (Bressan et al, 1989). The mobility of spermatozoa of A. cygnea was almost completely inhibited at a concentration of LAS equal to 20 mg l–1.
Measurements of CR were used to quantify the toxic effects of chemicals and to study QSAR (Donkin & Widdows, 1990) for various chemicals, including alkanes and phenyl alkanes (Donkin et al., 1991) as well as such aromatics as toluene, naphthalene, n-propylbenzene, 1-chloronaphthalene, biphenyl etc. (Donkin et al., 1989). Two xenobiotics, including an organotin compound, inhibited the fitration rate by Dressena polymorpha and Crenomytilus grayanus (Mitin, 1984).
The filtering activity of not only bivalves, but also of other filter-feeders is vulnerable to the inhibition by surfactants. In experiments with rotifers Brachionus angularis Gosse, we have shown that TDTMA inhibited their filtration rate and the removal of cells of Chlorella sp. from the water (Kartasheva & Ostroumov, 1998). At a TDTMA concentration of 0.5 mg l–1, the average efficiency of filtration was 58.5% of that in control.
However important these kinds of studies of CR are, it is also important to consider the general consequences of a decrease in the CR for the ecosystem.
The role of the filtering activity of mussels is connected with their high population densities. It was estimated that at Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, mussels represented about 77% (11 kg m -2) of the total community dry weight (Nixon et al., 1971), and numbers of the same order of magnitude were reported for other locations (Seed & Suchanek, 1992). Taking into account that, in our experiments, one mussel with a total wet weight about 8.5 g filtered over 1 L of water per hour, it is easy to estimate that, at high abundancy, a mussel community may filter over 100 L water per hour per 1 m2 of the sea bottom.
A comparison of the tables for residual cell densities and CR for specific concentrations of surfactants shows that even a small decrease in CR produces a large difference in the residual cell density. The latter parameter may be considered as a model for any kind of particles which are being removed from the seawater by mussel filtering. In this way we may predict a huge decline in the natural ability of benthic communities to purify natural water when the water is polluted by surfactants as well as by other chemicals reducing the CR.
Changes (inhibition) of the filtering activity of bivalves might have many consequences in changing many parameters and processes in ecosystems, which were considered in more detail in (Ostroumov et al., 1997; 1998; Ostroumov, 1998).
Those considerations show that the inhibition of CR has consequences not limited by the prosperity of the mussel population, but that it is important for the state of the marine and estuarine ecosystems in much broader terms. Prospects of chemical-induced inhibition of water filtration by bivalves poses some ecological hazards in view of the role of bivalves in eutrophication control. The latter was studied in the case of the ecosystem of Chesapeake Bay (the Atlantic coast of the U.S.A.) (Newell et al., 1999).
5. SENSITIVITY OF PLANKTON GRAZERS TO XENOBIOTICS – ANALOGOUS EVIDENCE FOR ZOOPLANKTON
Analysis of the specific LC50 for Cladocera and various species of algae shows that in case of many pollutants Cladocera are more sensitive than algae. According to the data disseminated at the recent workshop in Netherlands (9-12 December 1999, Den Helder, TNO; participants of the research project: M. Scholten, R. Jak, B. Clement, E. Foekema, P.Hernandez, K.Kaag, H. van Dokkum, M. Smit), in the case of the following pesticides, species of Cladocera (mainly Daphnia magna, D. pulex, Ceriodaphnia dubia) are more sensitive: anilazin, benomyl, bentazon, cyfluthrin, dimethoat, lindan, maneb, zineb, and ziram. In case of several pesticides, it was directly shown that the inhibitory effects on feeding were observed at lower concentrations, than the concentrations which induced mortality. EC50 (effects on feeding within 4-24 h) were lower than LC50 (24-48 h) for endosulfan, diazinon, methyl parathion, lindan, and dichlobenil (according to the data distributed at the same workshop). In case of atrazine, a concentration of 1.6 mg l–1 within 10 min produced 50% reduction in feeding, which shows again that feeding activity is inhibited at concentrations lower than those inducing mortality: LC50 (48 h) was 9.88 mg l–1.
Also, NOEC (No observable effect concentration) was the basis for comparing sensitivities of Cladocera and various species of algae to pesticides. In case of the following chemicals a higher sensitivity of Cladocera was found: azinfos-methyl, cyromazin, diazinon, dimethoat, endosulfan, fenpropathrin, malathion, mecoprop, propoxur, trifluralin, and some other pesticides.
All these data as well as the new evidence in the experiments conducted at TNO during the project led by Dr. M. Scholten (see Table 1) are in accord with the concept that pollutants may impair top-down control of algae. This conclusion is analogous to the conclusion made by us on the basis of our data for benthic filter-feeders.
6. SYNOPTIC OVERVIEW AND GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
Some benthic organisms, including spongi, polychets, bivalves, echinoderms, larvae of insects, ascidia and some others proved to be efficient organisms in filtering water and thereby in reducing the amount of particulate matter suspended in the water. Benthic filter-feeders remove from the surrounding water various suspended particles including algal cells. By doing so, they contribute to natural mechanisms that keep algal populations under some control. That type of top-down control under some circumstances might become especially important. The problem of algal blooms in the context of eutrophication is increasing attention to all mechanisms of control of algal populations including the control by virtue of water filtering by benthic filter-feeders, including bivalves. Some pollutants were shown to be efficient inhibitors that decrease water filtering and resulting grazing phytoplankton. Those chemicals produced a decrease in removal of algae from water column by bivalves.
The author initiated systematic studies of effects of surfactants and detergents on filtering activity and removal of algae by freshwater and marine bivalves. Marine and freeshwater bivalves Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and Unio sp. are efficient in removing unicellular organisms from water in result of their filtration activity. They are capable of drastically reducing the amount of cells of phytoplankton in water. This is an important mechanism contributing to natural control of algal populations in ecosystems. This regulatory mechanism is vulnerable to aquatic pollutants as exemplified by surfactants and detergents. New data are obtained and presented in this paper on how surfactants (anionic, non-ionic, and cationic ones) and surfactant-containing detergents inhibit the ability of marine and freshwater bivalves to remove cells of algae and cyanobacteria from water. On the basis of our new data, the final conclusion is that the new evidence support the views proposed in (Ostroumov, 1998; 1999; 2000c; 2000e) about the vulnerability of the filtration activity of invertebrates (both planktonic and benthic animals) to some pollutants, including surfactants. Our data and general conclusion are in accord with the idea that pollutants can induce reduction in grazing efficiency of benthic and planktonic invertebrates.
We consider the studies of inhibitory effects of chemicals on fiter-feeders as an effective approach to elucidating the details of filter-feeding and associated removal of phytoplankton from the water column. The mechanisms and rates of plankton removal are of utmost importance for controlling levels of plankton which are the key parameters in processes of eutrophication and algal blooms.
Water filtering activity of invertebrates is part of water self-purification in ecosystems. The self-purification of water is one of preconditions for the sustainable use of water resources. Therefore, the vulnerability of filter-feeders to aquatic pollutants (including surfactants and detergents) leads to a potential threat to the sustainable use of aquatic resources in situations when the ability of ecosystems to purify water is inhibited by pollutants.
In sum, on the basis of the data presented here and in some of our publications (Ostroumov, 1998; 1999; 2000a; Ostroumov et al., 1997, 1998; Ostroumov & Fedorov, 1999), the following inferences are to be made:
1. Surfactants inhibit the filtering ability of marine and freshwater bivalves with a drastic effect on the amount of particulate material (modelled here by algal cells) left in the water.
2. When considering the environmental importance of surfactants and detergents (and of a broader range of xenobiotics and pollutants as well), the ramifications relevant to disturbance of the natural ability of the ecosystem to control phytoplankton populations should be taken into account.
3. Our new data are in accordance with the opinion (Ostroumov, 1990; 1991; 2000b; 2000c; 2000d; Telitchenko & Ostroumov, 1990; Yablokov & Ostroumov, 1991) that surfactants, if being discharged into the environment at substancial rates, might, under some circumstances and in some ecosystems, become more significant as environmental pollutants than it was thought before.
4. We make the prediction that many new examples are to be found of pollutants (both organic and inorganic) which inhibit filtration rate of filter-feeders (not only bivalves, but also other benthic and plankton organisms) and by doing so reduce the ability of invertebrates to control unicellular plankton populations. We predict that new examples are to be found of pollutants which inhibit the ability of invertebrates to control eutrophication.
5. Sustainable use of resources of aquatic ecosystems requires as an important pre-condition the efficient functioning of the ecosystems towards self-regulating and water self-purification. This pre-requisite includes normal functioning of top-down control exercised by the organisms at the higher levels of the trophic chains of ecosystems.
6. Studies of inhibitory effects of chemicals on the top-level organisms (e.g., grazers of plankton, including benthic filter-feeders) are a useful approach in obtaining information on the top-down control in trophic chains.
LIST OF TABLES:
Table 1. Top-down control in various natural and experimental systems (examples).
Table 2. Water-filtering activity of benthic organisms in some ecosystems (examples).
Table 3. Xenobiotics and contaminants that were shown to inhibit water-filtering activity of bivalves.
Table 4. New data on the inhibitory effect of surfactants and products that contain surfactants on the filtration efficiency of bivalve molluscs.
Table 5. Decrease in Isochrysis galbana cell density (per 0.5 ml) during filtering by Mytilus edulis in clean water (control beakers, A) and at 1 mg l–1 SDS (experimental beakers, B).
Table 6. Effect of SDS (2 mg l–1) on the efficiency of water filtering measured as the number of cells of Isochrysis galbana (per 0.5 mL) in the water after the 30-min period of filtering by Mytilus edulis.
Table 7. Inhibition (%) of the clearance rate (CR) of Isochrysis galbana during filtering by Mytilus edulis at various concentrations of SDS (after Ostroumov et al., 1998, with some changes).
Table 8. Effect of Triton X-100 on the clearance rate during filtering algae Isochrysis galbana by mussels Mytilus edulis (after Ostroumov et al., 1998, with some changes).
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Zaika, V. E., 1992. Long-term Changes in Zoobenthos of the Black Sea (Mnogoletnie Izmeneniya Zoobentosa Chernogo Morya). Naukova Dumka, Kiev. 247 pp.

The paper was cited and its conclusions were approved (selected examples):

The paper [Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal …SA Ostroumov – Hydrobiologia, 2002] was cited by:
Water Quality of Effluent-dominated Ecosystems: Ecotoxicological, Hydrological, and Management Considerations. – Hydrobiologia;
[Springer Netherlands];
ISSN 0018-8158 (Print) 1573-5117 (Online);
Volume 556, Number 1, 2006 (February).
DOI 10.1007/s10750-004-0189-7;
p. 365-379;
Bryan W. Brooks 1 , Timothy M. Riley 2 and Ritchie D. Taylor 3
(1) Department of Environmental Studies, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, One Bear Place # 97266, Waco, Texas 76798, USA;
(2) Barton Springs / Edwards Aquifer Conservation District, 1124 Regal Row, Austin, Texas 78748, USA;
(3) Department of Public Health, Centre for Water Resource Studies, Western Kentucky University, 1 Big Red Way, EST 437, Bowling Green, Kentucky 42101, USA;
– – – ——————–
Medit. Mar. Sci., 8/2, 2007, 19-32;
Mediterranean Marine Science;
Volume 8/2, 2007, 19-32;
Identification of the self-purification stretches of the Pinios River, Central Greece;
Y. CHATZINIKOLAOU 1, 2 and M. LAZARIDOU 1
1Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Faculty of Sciences,
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece;
2Institute of Inland Waters, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research,
46.7 km Athinon – Souniou Av., 190 13, P.O. Box 712, Anavissos, Hellas;
– – – – –
Impact of Dam Construction on Water Quality and Water Self-Purification Capacity of the Lancang River, China. – Water Resources Management;
[Springer Netherlands],
ISSN 0920-4741 (Print) 1573-1650 (Online),
Volume 23, Number 9, 2009 (July).
DOI 10.1007/s11269-008-9351-8;
pp. 1763-1780;
GuoLiang Wei 1, 2, ZhiFeng Yang 1, BaoShan Cui 1 Contact Information, Bing Li 2, He Chen 1, JunHong Bai 1 and ShiKui Dong 1
(1) State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, P. R. China;
(2) Nuclear and Radiation Safety Centre, State Environmental Protection Administration, Beijing, 100088, P. R. China
– – – —————————————-
Assessment of ecosystem health of tropical shallow waterbodies in eastern India using turbulence model;
Authors: N. R. Samal a; A. Mazumdar b; K. D. Joumlhnk c; F. Peeters d
Affiliations: a Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, Durgapur, West Bengal, India;
b School of Water Resources Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India;
c Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Neuglobsow, Germany;
d Limnologisches Institut, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany;
DOI: 10.1080/14634980902908589;
Published in: journal Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, Volume 12, Issue 2, April 2009, pages 215 – 225
– – – – ——-
Lake and Reservoir Management
Bhatti, Zafar
Water Environment Research [Water Environ. Res.]. Vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 2106-2154. Oct 2004.
– – ———————————–

Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders.

Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders.
DOI 10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1;
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1;
Article in: Hydrobiologia. 2005. Vol. 542, No. 1. P. 275 – 286.


Paper, water quality, aquatic ecosystem, freshwater, marine, filter-feeders, bivalves, rotifers, filtration rate, clearance rate, surfactants, detergents, ecological taxation, ecological repair, chemical pollution, pollutants, tetradecyltrymethylammonium bromide, heavy metalsAbstract, features.

Article reference:

Ostroumov S.A. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. – Hydrobiologia. 2005. Vol. 542, No. 1. P. 275 – 286.

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/09/some-aspects-of-water-filtering.html

Features:

New concepts and terminology were introduced in the paper: ecological tax; ecological repair of water quality;

a review of the ecological role of filter-feeders, suspension feeders in water (both  freshwater and marine) ecosystems, a first paper to formulate a short  list of the most vital roles and functions as ecosystem engineers;

unique summary of quantitative data on filtration activity of invertebrates;

detailed, fresh-angle analysis of how filter-feeders contribute to water quality improvement and water self-purification;

a deeper understanding of ecosystem services as related to filter-feeders;

  • DOI: 10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1
  • Indexed: Web of Science. 
  •  New concepts and terminology were introduced in the paper: ecological tax; ecological repair of water quality. Opinion paper. Also, a review paper. 
  •  ISSN 0018-8158 (Print) 1573-5117 (Online).
  • Full text see: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226902807_Some_aspects ; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45914201
  • ABSTRACT. The article gave a fresh review and innovative analysis of the vital role of filter-feeders in functioning and maintenance of stability of aquatic ecosystems (both freshwater and marine ones). The paper includes the following tables which summarize many relevant facts and innovative ideas. 
  • Tables: Table 1. Examples of the impact of filter-feeders on the water column: clearance time. Table 2. Examples of diversity of taxa of benthic organisms involved in removing seston from water, and filtration rates. Table 3. Effect of the increase in concentration of algae on the filtration rate and the amount consumed by rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus. Table 4. The ratio F:P in some groups of organisms (examples of what the author named “ecological taxation”, the new concept and term coined by the author). Table 5. The ratio F: (P+R) in some filter feeders. Table 6. Results of the ecological tax: biosediment formation in 6 ecosystems. Table 7. Contribution of various aquatic organisms to oxidation of organic matter in the ecosystem of the Sea of Okhotsk. Table 8. Some chemicals that inhibit the filtering activity of the filter-feeders (new data of the author). Table 9. Some features of water-filtering biomachinery: 6 fundamental principles. Table 10. The level-block approach to the analysis of ecological hazards of anthropogenic effects on the biota (the new conceptualization proposed by the author). 
  • Some fundamental principles that characterize the pivotal roles of the biodiversity of filter-feeders in ecosystems. Among those roles are: (1) the role of ecological repair (a new concept and term proposed by the author) of water quality, (2) the role of contributing to reliability and stability of the functioning of the ecosystem, (3) the role of contributing to creation of habitat heterogeneity, (4) the role of contributing to acceleration of migration of chemical elements. It is an important feature of the biomachinery of filter-feeders that it removes from water various suspended particles of a very broad range of sizes. Another important principle is that the amount of the organic matter filtered out of water is larger than the amount assimilated so that a significant part of the removed material serves no useful function to the organism of the filter-feeder, but serves a beneficial function to some other species and to the ecosystem as a whole. The new experiments by the author additionally demonstrated a vulnerability of the filtration activity of filter feeders (e.g. bivalves and rotifers) to some chemical pollutants and xenobiotics (e.g., synthetic surfactants exemplified by tetradecyltrymethylammonium bromide, and also heavy metals and some others). The inhibition of the filtration activity of filter-feeders may lead to the situation previously described as that of an ecological hazard of the second type. 
  • KEY WORDSwater quality, aquatic, ecosystem, freshwater, marine, filter-feeders, bivalves, rotifers, filtration rate, clearance rate, surfactants, detergents, ecological taxation, ecological repair, chemical pollution, pollutants, tetradecyltrymethylammonium bromide, heavy metals, mussels, oysters, mollusks, suspension feeders, self-purification, environmental, toxicology, ecotoxicology, ecology
  • .Full name of the author: in English: Sergei Andreevich Ostroumov; Sergei A. Ostroumov; in Russian: Сергей Андреевич Остроумов; С.А.Остроумов;
  •  CITATION of this article:
  • Innovation in ecology (filter-feeders): cited in U.S.A., U.K., Italy, Netherlands, Australia, Kuwait. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/06/innovation-in-ecology-filter-feeders.html; A paper on aquatic ecology (innovative analysis of the roles of filter-feeders in ecosystems) was well-cited in international literature, including countries as diverse as U.S.A., Australia, Kuwait, U.K. and some others. Reference to the paper: Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders.- Hydrobiologia. 2005. Vol. 542, No. 1. P. 275 – 286; DOI: 10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1; DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-4111-X_26; 
  • Innovation in ecology (filter-feeders): cited in U.S.A., U.K., Italy, Netherlands, Australia, Kuwait; http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/06/innovation-in-ecology-filter-feeders.html
  • Examples of the papers that cited this article, selected
  • U.S.A.: Douglas H. Erwin, and Sarah Tweedt . Ecological drivers of the Ediacaran-Cambrian diversification of Metazoa. — Evolutionary Ecology. 2011 [Abstract: Organismal modifications to their physical and chemical environment play a significant role in structuring many modern ecosystems, …] DOI: 10.1007/s10682-011-9505-7; http://www.springerlink.com/content/68744t228x044112/; published online 13 July 2011;
  •  
  •  U.S.A.: Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 27(2): 409-423. 2008; doi: 10.1899/07-058.1; http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1899/07-058.1; Community and foodweb ecology of freshwater mussels; Caryn C. Vaughn, S. Jerrine Nichols, Daniel E. Spooner. 
  •  
  • ITALY: Margherita Licciano, Antonio Terlizzi, Adriana Giangrande, Rosa Anna Cavallo, Loredana Stabili. Filter-feeder macroinvertebrates as key players in culturable bacteria biodiversity control: a case of study with Sabella spallanzanii (Polychaeta: Sabellidae).- Marine Environmental Research, 64, 4 (2007) 504. [1 Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali (DiSTeBA), Via Prov. Lecce- Monteroni, 73100-Lecce, Italy; 2 Istituto per l’Ambiente Marino Costiero – Sezione di Taranto – CNR, Via Roma 3, 74100-Taranto, Italy];
  •  
  • ITALY: New Biotechnology, Volume 29, Issue 3, 15 February 2012, Pages 443–450; doi: 10.1016/j.nbt.2011.11.003; The lipidic extract of the seaweed Gracilariopsis longissima (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales): a potential resource for biotechnological purposes? L. Stabili a, b, M.I. Acquaviva a, F. Biandolino a, R.A. Cavallo a, S.A. De Pascali b, F.P. Fanizzi b, M. Narracci a, A. Petrocelli a, E. Cecere a; a Institute for Coastal Marine Environment (IAMC)–CNR, U.O.S. Taranto, Talassografico “A. Cerruti”, Via Roma 3 – 74100 Taranto, Italy; b Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies (Di.S.Te.B.A.), Università del Salento, via Prov.le Lecce Monteroni – 73100 Lecce, Italy; 
  •  
  • NETHERLANDS: M. Harty. Christmas tree worms (Spirobranchus giganteus) as a potential bioindicator species of sedimentation stress in coral reef environments of Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean – Physis, 2011, vol.9, p.20-30. The full text see: http://www.scribd.com/doc/54500338/2011-PHYSIS-J-marine-science-v-9; Netherlands 
  • AUSTRALIA: Dafforn K.A., Glasby T.M., Johnston E.L. (2012) Comparing the Invasibility of Experimental “Reefs” with Field Observations of Natural Reefs and Artificial Structures. PLoS ONE 7(5): e38124. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038124; ** Affiliation: Katherine A. Dafforn 1*, Tim M. Glasby 2, Emma L. Johnston 1; 1 Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 2 New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Port Stephens Fisheries Institute, Nelson Bay, New South Wales, Australia; 
  •  
  • UNITED KINGDOM, KUWAIT: Mesopot. J. Mar. Sci., 2010, 25 (1): 11 – 30. The effect of salinity and temperature on the uptake of cadmium and zinc by the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis with some notes on their survival. M. Ali¹ and A. Taylor²*; ¹Aquaculture, Fisheries and Marine Environment Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 1638, Salmiya 22017, Kuwait; ²Faculty of Biomedical & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom; *e-mail: [email protected];
  •  
  • U.S.A.:  Yates, Jennifer Maria, “Influences of a Cladophora Bloom on the Diets of Amblema Plicata and Elliptio Dilatata in the Upper Green River, Kentucky” (2012). Masters Theses & Specialist Projects. Paper 1221. http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/theses/1221 
  • U.S.A. Citation in the text of Thesis written at Western Kentucky University, U.S.A.: A fragment of the text: Mussels assimilate only part of the organic matter they consume (Ostroumov, 2005). The consumed materials that aren’t assimilated, however, are not lost from the food web to respiration or burial. Instead, they are deposited on surface sediments in the form of feces or pseudofeces (Strayer et al., 1999). Thus, part of what mussels ingest is not of direct use to them but can reenter the ecosystem (Ostroumov, 2005). Both 5 suspension feeders and deposit feeders benefit from this cycling of matter (Howard & Cuffey, 2006). The excretory waste products of mussels, or “biodeposits”, are..

Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification

Article: Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification.

DOI 10.1023/A:1015559123646;

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A%3A1015559123646;

Links to full text; citation;

**

Reference to the paper:

Ostroumov S.A. Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. Hydrobiologia. 2002. vol. 469, pages 117-129.

Citation of this paper:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/57034212/; Cited the paper:  Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication,… Hydrobiologia.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/200587396_Inhibitory_analysis

Key words: 

water quality, filter-feeders, water, self-purification, bivalves, ecotoxicology, aquatic, ecosystems, ecotoxicants, pollutants, surfactants, detergents, new, discovery, hazards, protection of environment, ecology, environmental, toxicology, Mytilus,  phytoplankton, water filtration, marine, freshwater, mussels, oysters, suspension feeders,

algal blooms, aquatic ecosystems, eutrophication, filter-feeders, Inhibitory analysis,  new, self-purification, studying, top-down control,  Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus edulis,  Unio tumidus, Unio pictorum,

**

Full text online free:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/200587396_Inhibitory_analysis

the web site with the full text of this paper, and Addendum with relevant recent publications, free:

Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002. vol. 469, pages 117-129;

http://www.scribd.com/doc/52598579

Abstract:

Top-down control is an important type of interspecies interactions in food webs. It is especially important for aquatic ecosystems. Phytoplankton grazers contribute to the top-down control of phytoplankton populations. The paper is focused on the role of benthic filter-feeders in the control of plankton populations as a result of water filtering and the removal of cells of plankton from the water column. New data on the inhibitory effects of surfactants and detergents on benthic filter-feeders (freshwater mussels Unio tumidus, U. pictorum, marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, M. edulis, and oysters Crassostrea gigas) are presented and discussed. Importance and efficiency of that approach to the problems of eutrophication and water self-purification is pointed out. Chemical pollution may pose a threat to the natural top-down control of phytoplankton and water self-purification process. The latter is considered an important prerequisite for sustainable use of aquatic resources.

**

Examples of citation of this paper: http://ru.scribd.com/doc/57034212/Cited

**

This file, with small changes, is also here:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2015/01/updated-812015-article-inhibitory.html

Pellets of some mollusks in the biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al

07.01.2015. Pellets of some mollusks in the biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001. Vol. 379, P. 378-381. DOI 10.1023/A:1011620817764;

link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1011620817764;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2015/01/pellets-of-some-mollusks-in.html

 

The paper is available in university libraries.

Full text free:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259579605_Pellets; http://ru.scribd.com/doc/45911730/;

Pellets of some mollusks in the biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001. Vol. 379, P. 378-381.

ISSN: 0012-4966 (Print) 1608-3105 (Online) Distributed by Springer,  [email protected] [co-authors: S.A.Ostroumov, Kolesnikov M.P.].

Translated from the original Russian edition: Доклады академии наук [DAN ] 2001.  Том (Vol.) 379.  No. 3.  Стр. (P.) 426-429.

Pellets of some mollusks in the biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001. Vol. 379, P. 378-381.

DOI 10.1023/A:1011620817764;

link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1011620817764;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2015/01/pellets-of-some-mollusks-in.html
Full text free:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259579605_Pellets; http://ru.scribd.com/doc/45911730/;

Pellets of some mollusks in the biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001. Vol. 379, P. 378-381. (Translated from: DAN 2001. Vol. 379.  No. 3. P. 426-429). ISSN 0012-4966. Distributed by Springer,  [email protected] [co-authors: S.A.Ostroumov, Kolesnikov M.P.].

 

Until now the role of mollusks as links between ecological and geochemical processes was underestimated. The paper discovered the role of mollusks as key biomachines that drive massive flows of chemical elements including C, N, P, Si, Al in the biosphere, and hazards from pollutants as inhibitors of these flows. New data on coupling of geochemical and ecological (hydrobiological) processes. The role of freshwater mollusks, pond snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) in the flows of chemical elements in the biosphere was studied by detecting the elemental composition and amount of pellets produced by the mollusks.

For the first time, the following was quantitatively studied:

(1) the elemental composition (C, N, P, Si, Al) of the pellets formed by mollusks Lymnaea stagnalis feeding on the green leaves of the higher plants Nuphar lutea and Taraxacum officinale;

 

(2) the amount (wet weight, dry weight) of pellets formed by L. stagnalis feeding on the leaves of N. lutea and T. officinale;

(3) the transfer of matter and chemical elements (C, N, P, Si, Al)  with pellets of freshwater bivalves (unionids Unio sp., etc.) per unit biomass of mollusks and per unit area of the ecosystem of the river;

 

(4) the transfer of matter and chemical elements (C, N, P, Si, Al) with the pellets of L. stagnalis per unit biomass of mollusks and per unit area of the ecosystem of the pond.

Synthetic surfactants tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ТDТМА) 2 mg/l, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) 1-2 mg/l, and  the laundry detergent (one of common detergents, Tide-Lemon) 75 mg/l inhibited the trophic activity (feeding rate) of the snails (L. stagnalis). Percents of food assimilability of taxons of invertebrates, from Rotatoria (48-80) to Diptera (1-31)].

DOI 10.1023/A:1011620817764;   http://sites.google.com/site/2001dbs379p378pellets/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730;

PMID: 12918380 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE];

 Tags: C, N, P, Si, Al, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, freshwater mollusks, pond snails, Lymnaea stagnalis, pellets, higher plants, Nuphar lutea, feeding rate, tetradecyltrimethylammonium,  dodecyl sulfate, SDS, laundry detergent, trophic activity, aquatic, environmental, toxicology, ecotoxicology, ecology, freshwater, water quality, pollution, hazards, unionids, bivalves, Unio,

**

Explanation of some comments to the title of this journal: after 1991, this journal is an English translation of proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences (not of the USSR Academy of Sciences). However, in some computer data bases the old comment on the title (with mentioning of the USSR, namely: proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological sciences sections) is kept. The mention of ‘USSR’ is outdated, obsolete. The bottom line is: the formal title of this journal is: Doklady Biological Sciences. 

**

Notes for this article (4 public)  

Innovative pape on how aquatic molluscs function as part of biomachinery and mechanism to transfer chemical elements through aquatic ecosystem. The first paper in which the quantitative measurements were reported on how much of the chemical elements are being transferred through ecosystem in the form of pellets.

 

** First measurements, first publication: New quantitative data on how aquatic mollusks drive fluxes of the chemical elements.

 

** Ostroumov S. A., M. P. Kolesnikov. Pellets of Some Mollusks in the Biogeochemical Flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.379, p.378-381. www.scribd.com/doc/49065604; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730;

PMID: 12918380; www.scribd.com/doc/49065604; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730;

Added 

NOTE ON IMPORTANCE OF THE PUBLICATIONS to which this article belongs. This publication belongs to a series of publications. The importance of this publication is in part substantiated by the importance of the entire series of the papers and books. Explanation of the importance of the entire series see here:

 

** #Explanations. Why are these papers -#environmental_science #ecology, biology- well cited in articles, dissertations:  http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/03/explanations-why-are-these-papers-on.html

 

** Why it matters. FAQ on #innovative publications. #Environmental_science. New facts on #environmental_hazards.  http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/01/why-it-matters-faq-on-innovative.html

 

** Review published of the article: Effect of a Cationic Amphiphilic Compound on Rotifers http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/04/review-published-of-article-effect-of.html

 

** Priority No.1 requirement in protecting water quality, water safety, sustainability; environmental safety of water supply. Innovative approach. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/01/priority-no1-requirement-in-protecting.html

 

** Clear Water Fundamentals: theory, practical recommendations, water self-purification. Basics of the molecular-ecological mechanism of water quality formation and water self-purification.  http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/fundamentals-theory-water-self.html

 

**

Added 

Note on evidence of merit: citation. EVIDENCE OF MERIT. CITATION. A series of relevant publications (environmental science, ecology, water ecology). The articles of this series were cited by scientists of scientific institutions worldwide, including universities and research institutes in USA, UK, Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, China, Australia, et al. The examples of citation:  http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/06/evidence-of-merit-citation-series-of.html

Added 

Note on availability in libraries. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/06/availability-in-libraries-list-of-blog.html

This publication belongs to a series of publications (papers, books) on environmental sciences. The publications of this series are available in libraries worldwide. More info see here:

Availability in libraries. List of blog posts /web pages / links. More than 20 pages. Papers and books available in libraries of N.America, Europe, Asia, Latin America, Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Topics: environmental science, ecology, biology, water quality research. Sections of the list: U.S.A., Canada, U.K.; Europe, Asia; Latin America; Australia and N.Zealand; Various countries and regions:  http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/06/availability-in-libraries-list-of-blog.html

 

**

Online, mentioned:

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Britain-UK-British-English-Language-Ecology/765678433528820

 

https://www.facebook.com/USA.World.GoodUniversitiesEnvironmentalScience?ref=ts&fref=ts

 

https://www.facebook.com/pages/TurkeyTurkish-universities-EcologyWaterSeaEnvironment/344761425599941?fref=ts

 

https://www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Cambridge-Environmental-Science/478196538868332?ref=ts&fref=ts

 

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Top-Universities-Top-achievementsEnvironmental-Science/111125392385720?ref=ts&fref=ts

 

https://www.facebook.com/pages/GermanDeutschUmweltwissenschaften-%C3%96kologieWissenschaftler-Studenten/318149598264566?ref=ts&fref=ts

 

https://www.facebook.com/BRICS.ecology?ref=ts&fref=ts

 

Responses of Unio tumidus to Mixed Chemical Preparations and the Hazard of Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects

Responses of Unio tumidus to Mixed Chemical Preparations and the Hazard of Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects.

Responses of #Unio tumidus to Mixed #Chemical Preparations and the #Hazard of Synecological Summation;

DOI 10.1023/A:1012344026176;

http://t.co/M19EfGfoJe #springerlink;

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1012344026176;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2015/01/responses-of-unio-tumidus-to-mixed.html

This  article reports new experimental data on ecotoxicology. This is an ecology article in a peer-reviewed scientific journal; new data on environmental hazards from water pollution with synthetic detergents;

Unio tumidus is the Latin name for the common freshwater bivalve mollusk (freshwater mussels). New toxic effects of low concentrations of detergents (which are mixtures of chemicals including surfactants) were discovered in this article. The article presents both new facts and new concepts that are relevant to improvement of water quality and pollution control.

This article is available in university libraries; also, see the link:

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1012344026176;

**

Journal:

Doklady Biological Sciences,

Volume 380, Issue 1-6 , pp. 492-495.

DOI 10.1023/A:1012344026176 ;

Print ISSN 0012-4966;

Online ISSN 1608-3105;

**

 

mentioned online:

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Britain-UK-British-English-Language-Ecology/765678433528820?ref=ts&fref=ts

https://www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Oxford/269635173137450?ref=ts&fref=ts

https://www.facebook.com/EuropeEnvironmentEcology?ref=ts&fref=ts

https://www.facebook.com/pages/TurkeyTurkish-universities-EcologyWaterSeaEnvironment/344761425599941?fref=ts

 

More info on environmental toxicology of detergents:

Phytotoxicity of a surfactant-containing product towards macrophytes.

Phytotoxicity of a surfactant-containing product towards macrophytes.

Phytotoxicity of a surfactant-containing product towards macrophytes.

Russian Journal of General Chemistry.

2013, Volume 83, Issue 13, pp. 2614-2617.

S. A. Ostroumov,  E. A. Solomonova  (Moscow State University).

DOI 10.1134/S1070363213130057 ; http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S1070363213130057;

Abstract:

Extending the studies of surfactant-containing products, we have investigated the effect of the Liquid Crystal Concentrate detergent on aquatic macrophytes Elodea canadensis within laboratory microcosms. It has been shown that the detergent produced some negative influence on the macrophytes at 50–150 μL/mL (5–15 vol %).

Key words:

aquatic, detergent, ecotoxicology, Elodea canadensis, macrophytes, phytotest, phytotoxicity, plants, pollution,  toxicity, water, biotest, environmental, hazard, assessment, ecotoxicant, synthetic surfactants,

  • Original Russian Text © S.A. Ostroumov, E.A. Solomonova, 2012, published in: Ekologicheskaya Khimiya, 2012, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 112–116.

Title:

 

Phytotoxicity of a surfactant-containing product towards macrophytes;

Journal: Russian Journal of General Chemistry;

Volume 83, Issue 13 , pp 2614-2617 ;

DOI 10.1134/S1070363213130057; 

Print ISSN 1070-3632; Online ISSN 1608-3350;

Publisher: Springer US;

 

 

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  • **

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Images: innovations in environmental science, ecology, nature conservation. Covers of the books authored, co-authored by Fulbright Awardee Dr. S.A. Ostroumov

images of some books authored and co-authored by Dr. S.A. Ostroumov, a Fulbright Award winner: photographs, pictures, books, covers http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/10/saostroumov-images-photographs-pictures.html **   ** **   ** Published in Poland by the best publishing house for scientific literature,  the innovative book entitled ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’: ** The first chapter of this book is written in […]

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25 clues to get environmental safety, water sustainability

25 clues, steps toward environmental safety, sustainability: Innovations in environmental science. A review of 25  selected examples.http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/innovations-in-environmental-science.html Innovations in environmental science.Review:25  selected examples. (Format 2)http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/innovationsin-environmental-science.htmlThe goal of this review is to provide a short summary of a series of innovative publications on environmental science and ecology. The papers were authored by scientists of Moscow State […]

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Languages serve environmental science: English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Swedish, Polish, Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Turkish, and others. Key words, blog posts

by Sergei Ostroumov on November 29, 2012 in Uncategorized {Edit}

Languages serve environmental science: English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Swedish, Polish,  Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Turkish, Bengali, Hindi, Arabic and others. Key words and blog posts. ** Key words, and the blog posts on the series of publications on environmental science, ecology, biology (Fulbright Award winner, Moscow State University): http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/08/key-words-and-blog-posts-on.html ** The list of the […]

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Secrets of keeping nature in balance. Innovative discovery

by Sergei Ostroumov on November 29, 2012 in Blog Post {Edit}

A paper was published that discovered new hazards to keeping plankton in balance: Imbalance of Factors Providing Control of Unicellular Plankton Populations Exposed to Anthropogenic Impact S. A. Ostroumov Journal: Doklady Biological Sciences , vol. 379, no. 1, pp. 341-343, 2001 DOI: 10.1023/A:1011600213221;  The first discovery of how negative effects of pollutants (surfactants) on invertebrate animals (filter-feeders) may […]

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Search for clues to solve environmental problems. Issues of water safety, water pollution.

Top innovative. Recent innovation, examples. Many full texts free. Solutions to issues of Environment, ecology, biology. Various scientific news. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/top-innovative.html ** Relevant, related, similar papers, scientific results: with sites of the full texts free, selected: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/environmental-sciences-ecology-biology_14.html; ** Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas,  Thalassiosira pseudonana, Synechococcus, Fagopyrum esculentum, Oryza sativa, 25 articles published:  http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/10/mytilus-edulis-crassostrea-gigas.html ** Top of top. Environmental Science: […]

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Top innovative: Scientists put living cells into micropyramids, and other recent innovations, examples. Many full texts free. Solutions to issues of Environment, ecology, biology. Various scientific news.

Top innovative: Scientists put  living cells into micropyramids, and other recent innovations, examples. Many full texts free. Solutions to issues of Environment, ecology, biology. Various scientific news. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/top-innovative.html** Examples of recent innovation: Scientists put living cells into micropyramids: http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=969581&cid=2161 ** However, the modern challenges of man-made impact on environment are more difficult to address than even the issues of cell […]

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New solutions to new challenges: Environmental sciences, ecology, biology

New solutions to new challenges: Environmental sciences, ecology, biology:  http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/new-solutions-to-new-challenges.html ** • scientific results obtained at M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, examples:  • A list of publications , with sites of the full texts, selected: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/environmental-sciences-ecology-biology_14.html  ** Top innovative. Recent innovation, examples. Many full texts free. Solutions to issues of Environment, ecology, biology. Various scientific news. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/top-innovative.html ** […]

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Cambridge University, and other universities cited the Moscow University ecologist, a Fulbright Award winner. Citation – examples.

Cambridge University, and other universities cited  the Moscow University ecologist, a Fulbright Award winner. Citation – examples. List of some institutions (examples) that cited this scientist of Moscow University who is a Fulbright Award winner; http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/institutions-examples-that-cited-this.html Examples of the cited publications:  **new facts, new ideas: ecology, environment: 1,200 words: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/new-facts-new-ideas-ecology-environment.html **Some aspects of water filtering activity of […]

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Sites. Environment. Part 8

Part 8 of the list of sites on environmental science ** On Some Issues of Maintaining Water Quality and Self-Purification..: http://www.general-files.com/download/gs4da9aa41h35i0/S.%20A.%20Ostroumov.%20On%20Some%20Issues%20of%20Maintaining%20Water%20Quality%20and%20Self-Purification..0305.html#comment-73890 ** Molecular-Ecological Mechanism of Water Quality Formation and Water Self-Purification: http://www.general-files.com/download/gs4ed2d6c0h35i0/Molecular-Ecological%20Mechanism%20of%20Water%20Quality%20Formation%20and%20Water%20Self-Purification.08CPEC.basicsMol.ecol.Mech.waterQuality%2801.html#.UCQN7w7Sw6g.twitter ** Env. Sci. progress. Breaking news on new blog posts, and science innovations. Topics: ecology, environmental science, pollution control, improving water quality, environmental safety, […]

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Sites. Environment. Part 6

Part 6 of the big list of sites: ** Opinion, evaluation of an Independent Internet user: on “Citation of a Moscow University ecologist, a Fulbright Awardee” http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/opinion-evaluation-of-independent.html ** Citation, FAQ: book bioeffects of surfactants, papers: environmental science, water quality,  water self-purification http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/citation-faq-book-papers-environmental.html ** Modernization of environmental education. Use of book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’, author […]