New conceptualization and terminology proposed: Biomachinery. Cyborgs vs. Biomachinery

New conceptualization and terminology proposed: Biomachinery. Cyborgs vs. Biomachinery.

In 1998, the author invented the term ‘biomachinery’, and published it in 1999 (see the second part of this file). Now it is clear that the term was useful and survived the test of time. This term means a kind of hybrid of two things: biological and non-biological ones. To a degree, this is relevant to what is called Cyborg.  Examples of Cyborgs are Terminators and  The Borg from Star Trek.

It is useful to look at what is written about Cyborgs in Wikipedia:

A cyborg, short for “cybernetic organism”, is a being with both biological and artificial (e.g. electronic, mechanical or robotic) parts. The term was coined in 1960 when Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline used it in an article about the advantages of self-regulating human-machine systems in outer space.   …… Fictional cyborgs are portrayed as a synthesis of organic and synthetic parts….

Fictional cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical (e.g. the Cybermen in the Doctor Who franchise or The Borg from Star Trek); or as almost indistinguishable from humans (e.g. the Terminators from the Terminator films, the “Human” Cylons from the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica etc.)

The 1970s television series The Six Million Dollar Man featured one of the most famous fictional cyborgs, referred to as a bionic man. … Cyborgs are also often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart (military forms may have inbuilt weapons, among other things).

[The end of the cited text from Wikipedia].

Cyborgs in films are sometimes very bad guys.

Very often they look like humans.

These two characteristics make the idea of Cyborg very different from the idea of biomachinery.

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 

Biomachinery is not associated with any specific or familiar form of body; and biomachinery is not doing any harm, on the contrary, it is doing a very good thing – upgrading water quality, purifying water, – which is one of key ecosystem services to benefit mankind.

 

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The following is a more scientific material on biomachinery.

http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/05/04/80/

New conceptualization and terminology in science of ecology: Biomachinery (the author is Dr. Sergei  A. Ostroumov, Moscow State University)

Новый термин. В научную терминологию введен новый термин: Biomachinery (автор термина: д.б.н. С.А. Остроумов, МГУ им. М.В.Ломоносова)

How the term ‘biomachinery’ was introduced to environmental and biological science: it happened in 1999. See the abstract: Ostroumov S.A. Integrity-oriented approach to ecological biomachinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems. – Limnology and Oceanography: Navigating into the Next Century. February 1-5, 1999, Santa Fe, New Mexico. ASLO (American Society of Limnology and Oceanography), Waco, TX. 1999. P. 134;

Dr. S.A. Ostroumov initiated and chaired the session “Ecosystems as Hi-Tech Water Purification Biomachinery” at the ASLO Meeting Limnology and Oceanography: Navigating into the Next Century. February 1-5, 1999, Santa Fe, New Mexico, the U.S.A.; it is the first time that he introduced the scientific term ‘biomachinery’.

**

The examples of the author’s publications where the term ‘biomachinery’ was used and discussed in a number of publications authored by S.A.Ostroumov – the list of the publications is presented below.

**

http://www.scribd.com/doc/82868065/Bio-Machinery-for-Maintaining-Water-Quality-and-Natural-Water-Self-purification-in-Marine-and-

 

S.A. Ostroumov. Biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine and estuarine systems: elements of a qualitative theory. – International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography, ISSN 0973-2667, Vol.1, No.1 (2006), pp. 111-118 © Research India Publications; http://www.ripublication.com/ijoo.htm; [Laboratory of Physico-Chemistry of Biomembranes, Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Vorob’evy Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia].

Abstract: Fundamental elements are formulated for a qualitative theory of the multi-functional (polyfunctional) role of the biota in maintaining self-purification and water quality in aquatic ecosystems. The elements of the theory covers the following: (1) sources of energy for the mechanisms of self-purification; (2) the main functional blocks of the system of self-purification; (3) the list of the main processes that are involved; (4) analysis of the degree of participation of the main large taxons; (5) degree of reliability and the main mechanisms providing the reliability; (6)regulation of the processes; (7) the response of the system towards the external influences(man-made impacts); (8) the analogy between ecosystems and a bioreactor; and (9)conclusions relevant to the practice of biodiversity conservation. In support of the theory, results are given of the author’s experiments which demonstrated the ability of some pollutants (surfactants, detergents, and some others) to inhibit the water filtration activity of marine filter-feeders (namely, the bivalve mollusks  mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus edulis, and oysters Crassostrea gigas). Key words: Ecosystems, pollution, water quality, water self-purification, filter-feeders. Abbreviations: LD – liquid detergent; SD- synthetic detergent; SDS – sodiumdodecylsulphate; TDTMA – tetradecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide;

**

http://www.scribd.com/doc/61779321/8-Legendary-discoveries-biomachinery; New Discovery: BIOMACHINERY.

**

http://www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/9925779

 

Ostroumov S.A. Filter-feeders as part of ecological biomachinery to purify water // Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 2005. Vol. 29/2 (Stuttgart,E.Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung), p.1072-1075; Fundamental key innovation. The author introduced a new fundamental concept in the science of hydrobiology and aquatic ecology: biomachinery of water self-purification. The aquatic invertebrates that are filter-feeders constitute a vital part of the complex of aquatic organisms which are involved in the biomachinery of improving water quality. http://www.schweizerbart.de/pubs/books/es/verhandlun-167002902-desc.html; http://www.borntraeger-cramer.de/publications/detail/isbn/9783510540662/XXIX-Congress-Lahti-Finland-8—14-August-2004; http://www.springerlink.com/index/R9PTJEQ5FK8VLA6M.pdf ; http://blog.researchgate.net/masterblog/619_Vital_role_of_aquatic_organisms_in_improving_water_quality.

How the term ‘biomachinery’ was introduced to science: it happened in 1999. See the abstract: Ostroumov S.A. Integrity-oriented approach to ecological biomachinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems. – Limnology and Oceanography: Navigating into the Next Century. February 1-5, 1999, Santa Fe, New Mexico. ASLO, Waco, TX. 1999. P. 134; Dr. S.A. Ostroumov initiated and chaired the session “Ecosystems as Hi-Tech Water Purification Biomachinery” at the ASLO Meeting Limnology and Oceanography: Navigating into the Next Century. February 1-5, 1999, Santa Fe, New Mexico; it is the first time that he introduced the scientific term ‘biomachinery’.

http://www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/9925779

**

Book: Ostroumov S.A. Aquatic organisms in water self-purification. Moscow. Max-Press, 2008, 200 p. (The Russian version of the title: Гидробионты в самоочищении вод). Chapter 1 was written in English. On page 4, the title of Chapter 1 is: “Theory of biocontrol of water quality and biomachinery of self-purification”.

The book got excellent evaluations in the published reviews:

http://sites.google.com/site/ostroumovsa/—/———–2008—–2009;

http://www.scribd.com/doc/74988105/

The list of the reviews (some of them in Russian):

Зимнюков В.А. Рецензия на книгу Остроумова С.А. «Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов» // Водное  хозяйство России: проблемы, технологии, управление.  2009. № 1. С. 103-106. ISSN 1999-4508. http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=12957127     ( = Zimnyukov V.A. Review of the book: S.A. Ostroumov. Gidrobionty v samoochischenii vod i biogennoy migratsii elementov // Water Sector of Russia: Problems, Technologies, Management (=Vodnoe  Khozyaystvo Rossii. 2009. № 1. p.103-106).

Капица А.П. Kapitsa A.P.  (член-корр. РАН) Review of the book:  S.A. Ostroumov. Aquatic organisms in water self-purification and biogenic migration of elements. Moscow. MAX Press. 2008. 200 p. – Ecologica, 2009. V.16 (53). P.8. на английском языке.

Розенберг Г.С. (чл.-корр. РАН, директор Института экологии Волжского бассейна РАН) Рецензия на кн.: С. А. Остроумов. Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов //  Биология моря.  2009. том 35, No. 3, С. 237-238. [ = Rozenberg G.S. Book Review: S. A. Ostroumov. Gidrobionty v samoochishchenii vod i biogennoj migracii elementov //  Biologiya morya (Russian Journal of Marine Biology).  2009. Vol. 35 (3). P. 237-238].

Ермаков В.В. (профессор, Заслуженный деятель науки РФ, зав. лабораторией Института РАН) О книге С.А.Остроумова «Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов» // Вода: химия и экология. 2009. №8. с.25-29. Библиогр. 26 назв. Аннотация: Представлена новая теория биомеханизмов самоочищения воды, изложенная в книге доктора биологических наук С.А.Остроумова «Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов». Гидробионты (водные организмы) активно участвуют в процессах, ведущих к очищению воды. В них участвуют почти все группы живых организмов, что анализируется в статье с различных сторон. При разработке теории были использованы результаты опытов автора, изучавшего воздействие поллютантов на живые организмы. Изложенная теория служит инновационной основой для создания новых экотехнологий очищения воды и повышения ее качества с использованием водных организмов.

Подробнее об авторе книги: http://www.famous-scientists.ru/3732/;

**

Элементы теории биоконтроля качества воды: фактор экологической безопасности источников водоснабжения (=Elements of the theory of biocontrol of water quality: a factor in the ecological safety of the sources of water = Elements of the theory of biocontrol of water quality: the factor in the ecological safety of the sources of water]) //  Химическая и биологическая безопасность (= Chemical and Biological Safety). 2008. No. 5-6. с.36-39. Библиогр. 22 назв. [http://www.cbsafety.ru/rus/saf_41_3.asp; http://scipeople.com/publication/67386/] (D:\_     готовить в печать\Химическая и биологическая безопасность\о моей книгеГидроб2008\_В хим био безоп4 о книгеГидробионты2008с путем.doc). Представлена новая теория биомеханизмов самоочищения воды, изложенная в книге автора «Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов» (М.: МАКС Пресс, 2008,  200 с.). Гидробионты активно участвуют в процессах, ведущих к очищению воды. В них участвуют почти все группы живых организмов, что анализируется в статье с различных сторон. При разработке теории были использованы результаты опытов автора, изучавшего воздействие поллютантов на живые организмы. Изложенная теория служит инновационной основой для создания новых экотехнологий очищения воды и повышения ее качества с использованием водных организмов. Представлены и обоснованы новые основные концепции, в том числе понятия и термины: biomachinery, экзометаболизм, экологические хеморегуляторы, экологические хемомедиаторы, макросимбиотические системы и другие. Новые  результаты автора по выявлению свойства синтетических поверхностно-активных веществ (ПАВ) подавлять фильтрацию воды двустворчатыми моллюсками были признаны научным открытием и отмечены Дипломом за научное открытие № 274. Теория вносит вклад в научные основы укрепления экологической безопасности водных экосистем (водоемов и водотоков), которые служат источниками водоснабжения.

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SUMMARY. As it was mentioned above, the term ‘biomachinery’ was a part of the name for a scientific session that was initiated, organized, and chaired by Dr. S.Ostroumov in 1999 in the U.S.A. It was mentioned in Internet and immediately attracted attention. Many people liked it. Now this word became a new part of English language. Now this word is in use.

Biomachinery is the term that the author, Dr. S.A.O., applied to better describe how ecosystems, especially aquatic ecosystem, function. The combined effect of collective functioning of many aquatic organisms was described in detail in his scientific publications. As a result of this team activity of water living creatures, water self-purification occurs. The efficient functioning of the aquatic biota (and ecosystem as a whole) has amazing similarity to hi-tech multi-component machinery. On this basis, the author proposed the term ‘biomachinery’, and applied it to characterize the functioning of aquatic ecosystems toward improving water quality.

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

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KEY WORDS: biomachinery, new terminology, environmental sciences, biology,  Moscow State University, S.A.Ostroumov, cybernetics, terminator, cyborg, the borg, robotic, human-machine systems, Star Trek, ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

New conceptualization and terminology in science of ecology: Biomachinery (author of the term: a scientist at M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University)

New terminology in science: Biomachinery (the author is a scientist at M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University)

Новый термин. В научную терминологию введен новый термин: Biomachinery (автор термина: научный сотрудник МГУ им. М.В.Ломоносова)

How the term ‘biomachinery’ was introduced to environmental and biological science:

The story started in 1998.

In 1998, Dr. S.A. Ostroumov initiated and later chaired the session “Ecosystems as Hi-Tech Water Purification Biomachinery” at the ASLO Meeting Limnology and Oceanography: Navigating into the Next Century. February 1-5, 1999, Santa Fe, New Mexico, the U.S.A.; it is the first time that he introduced the scientific term ‘biomachinery’.  Publication: See the abstract: Ostroumov S.A. Integrity-oriented approach to ecological biomachinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems. – Limnology and Oceanography: Navigating into the Next Century. February 1-5, 1999, Santa Fe, New Mexico. ASLO (American Society of Limnology and Oceanography), Waco, TX. 1999. P. 134;

The term is clear in its 2-part structure and almost self-explanatory. It conveys the idea of a mix of two things in mechanisms of functioning of ecological systems: one thing is individual biological organisms, and the second thing is their complex self-organization into a well-structured and efficient system so that  the entire system functions as a hi-tech machine.

**

The examples of the author’s publications where the term ‘biomachinery’ was used and discussed in a number of publications authored by S.A.Ostroumov – the list of the publications is presented below.

**

http://www.scribd.com/doc/82868065/Bio-Machinery-for-Maintaining-Water-Quality-and-Natural-Water-Self-purification-in-Marine-and-

 

S.A. Ostroumov. Biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine and estuarine systems: elements of a qualitative theory. – International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography, ISSN 0973-2667, Vol.1, No.1 (2006), pp. 111-118 © Research India Publications; http://www.ripublication.com/ijoo.htm;

[Laboratory of Physico-Chemistry of Biomembranes, Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Vorob’evy Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia]

Abstract: Fundamental elements are formulated for a qualitative theory of the multi-functional (polyfunctional) role of the biota in maintaining self-purification and water quality in aquatic ecosystems. The elements of the theory covers the following: (1) sources of energy for the mechanisms of self-purification; (2) the main functional blocks of the system of self-purification; (3) the list of the main processes that are involved; (4) analysis of the degree of participation of the main large taxons; (5) degree of reliability and the main mechanisms providing the reliability; (6)regulation of the processes; (7) the response of the system towards the external influences(man-made impacts); (8) the analogy between ecosystems and a bioreactor; and (9)conclusions relevant to the practice of biodiversity conservation. In support of the theory, results are given of the author’s experiments which demonstrated the ability of some pollutants (surfactants, detergents, and some others) to inhibit the water filtration activity of marine filter-feeders (namely, the bivalve mollusks  mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus edulis, and oysters Crassostrea gigas). Key words: Ecosystems, pollution, water quality, water self-purification, filter-feeders. Abbreviations: LD – liquid detergent; SD- synthetic detergent; SDS – sodiumdodecylsulphate; TDTMA – tetradecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide;

**

http://www.scribd.com/doc/61779321/8-Legendary-discoveries-biomachinery; New Discovery: BIOMACHINERY.

**

http://www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/9925779

 

Ostroumov S.A. Filter-feeders as part of ecological biomachinery to purify water // Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 2005. Vol. 29/2 (Stuttgart,E.Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung), p.1072-1075; Fundamental key innovation. The author introduced a new fundamental concept in the science of hydrobiology and aquatic ecology: biomachinery of water self-purification. The aquatic invertebrates that are filter-feeders constitute a vital part of the complex of aquatic organisms which are involved in the biomachinery of improving water quality. http://www.schweizerbart.de/pubs/books/es/verhandlun-167002902-desc.html; http://www.borntraeger-cramer.de/publications/detail/isbn/9783510540662/XXIX-Congress-Lahti-Finland-8—14-August-2004; http://www.springerlink.com/index/R9PTJEQ5FK8VLA6M.pdf ; http://blog.researchgate.net/masterblog/619_Vital_role_of_aquatic_organisms_in_improving_water_quality.

How the term ‘biomachinery’ was introduced to science: it happened in 1999. See the abstract: Ostroumov S.A. Integrity-oriented approach to ecological biomachinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems. – Limnology and Oceanography: Navigating into the Next Century. February 1-5, 1999, Santa Fe, New Mexico. ASLO, Waco, TX. 1999. P. 134; Dr. S.A. Ostroumov initiated and chaired the session “Ecosystems as Hi-Tech Water Purification Biomachinery” at the ASLO Meeting Limnology and Oceanography: Navigating into the Next Century. February 1-5, 1999, Santa Fe, New Mexico; it is the first time that he introduced the scientific term ‘biomachinery’.

http://www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/9925779

**

Book: Ostroumov S.A. Aquatic organisms in water self-purification. Moscow. Max-Press, 2008, 200 p. (the Russian version of the title: Гидробионты в самоочищении вод). Chapter 1 was written in English. On page 4, the title of Chapter 1 is: “Theory of biocontrol of water quality and biomachinery of self-purification”.

The book got excellent evaluations in the published reviews:

http://sites.google.com/site/ostroumovsa/—/———–2008—–2009;

http://www.scribd.com/doc/74988105/

The list of the reviews:

Зимнюков В.А. Рецензия на книгу Остроумова С.А. «Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов» // Водное  хозяйство России: проблемы, технологии, управление.  2009. № 1. С. 103-106. ISSN 1999-4508. http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=12957127     ( = Zimnyukov V.A. Review of the book: S.A. Ostroumov. Gidrobionty v samoochischenii vod i biogennoy migratsii elementov // Water Sector of Russia: Problems, Technologies, Management (=Vodnoe  Khozyaystvo Rossii. 2009. № 1. p.103-106).

Капица А.П. Kapitsa A.P.  (член-корр. РАН) Review of the book:  S.A. Ostroumov. Aquatic organisms in water self-purification and biogenic migration of elements. Moscow. MAX Press. 2008. 200 p. – Ecologica, 2009. V.16 (53). P.8. на английском языке.

Розенберг Г.С. (чл.-корр. РАН, директор Института экологии Волжского бассейна РАН) Рецензия на кн.: С. А. Остроумов. Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов //  Биология моря.  2009. том 35, No. 3, С. 237-238. [ = Rozenberg G.S. Book Review: S. A. Ostroumov. Gidrobionty v samoochishchenii vod i biogennoj migracii elementov //  Biologiya morya (Russian Journal of Marine Biology).  2009. Vol. 35 (3). P. 237-238].

Ермаков В.В. (профессор, Заслуженный деятель науки РФ, зав. лабораторией Института РАН) О книге С.А.Остроумова «Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов» // Вода: химия и экология. 2009. №8. с.25-29. Библиогр. 26 назв. Аннотация: Представлена новая теория биомеханизмов самоочищения воды, изложенная в книге доктора биологических наук С.А.Остроумова «Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов». Гидробионты (водные организмы) активно участвуют в процессах, ведущих к очищению воды. В них участвуют почти все группы живых организмов, что анализируется в статье с различных сторон. При разработке теории были использованы результаты опытов автора, изучавшего воздействие поллютантов на живые организмы. Изложенная теория служит инновационной основой для создания новых экотехнологий очищения воды и повышения ее качества с использованием водных организмов.

Подробнее об авторе книги: http://www.famous-scientists.ru/3732/;

**

Элементы теории биоконтроля качества воды: фактор экологической безопасности источников водоснабжения (=Elements of the theory of biocontrol of water quality: a factor in the ecological safety of the sources of water = Elements of the theory of biocontrol of water quality: the factor in the ecological safety of the sources of water]) //  Химическая и биологическая безопасность (= Chemical and Biological Safety). 2008. No. 5-6. с.36-39. Библиогр. 22 назв. [http://www.cbsafety.ru/rus/saf_41_3.asp; http://scipeople.com/publication/67386/] (D:\_     готовить в печать\Химическая и биологическая безопасность\о моей книгеГидроб2008\_В хим био безоп4 о книгеГидробионты2008с путем.doc). Представлена новая теория биомеханизмов самоочищения воды, изложенная в книге автора «Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов» (М.: МАКС Пресс, 2008,  200 с.). Гидробионты активно участвуют в процессах, ведущих к очищению воды. В них участвуют почти все группы живых организмов, что анализируется в статье с различных сторон. При разработке теории были использованы результаты опытов автора, изучавшего воздействие поллютантов на живые организмы. Изложенная теория служит инновационной основой для создания новых экотехнологий очищения воды и повышения ее качества с использованием водных организмов. Представлены и обоснованы новые основные концепции, в том числе понятия и термины: biomachinery, экзометаболизм, экологические хеморегуляторы, экологические хемомедиаторы, макросимбиотические системы и другие. Новые  результаты автора по выявлению свойства синтетических поверхностно-активных веществ (ПАВ) подавлять фильтрацию воды двустворчатыми моллюсками были признаны научным открытием и отмечены Дипломом за научное открытие № 274. Теория вносит вклад в научные основы укрепления экологической безопасности водных экосистем (водоемов и водотоков), которые служат источниками водоснабжения.

**

As it was mentioned above, the term ‘biomachinery’ was a part of the name for a scientific session that was initiated, organized, and chaired by Dr. S.Ostroumov in 1999 in the U.S.A. It was mentioned in Internet and immediately attracted attention. Many people liked it. Now this word became a new part of English language. Now this word is in use.

Addition

About this author, in Russian: http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

 

Interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

KEY WORDS: biomachinery, new terminology, environmental sciences, biology,  Moscow State University, S.A.Ostroumov, новый термин, науки об окружающей среде, экология, МГУ

Discovery: Innovative conceptualization of how ecosystems improve water quality (water self-purification)

Discovery: Innovative conceptualization of how ecosystems improve water quality (water self-purification)

Innovative conceptualization of how ecosystems improve water quality (water self-purification)

[Item 1 in the Series of files entitled: Legendary Discoveries];

There are a lot questions that are of key interest in our studies of ecological mechanisms that regulate, modify and form water quality in surface aquatic ecosystems. These questions are listed below.

 

Besides microorganisms, do the other organisms play a key role in improving water quality?

Which processes are the main ones which contribute to water self-purification?

Which organisms play key roles in improving water quality in aquatic ecosystems?

Which organisms, freshwater or marine are more involved in improving water quality?

How biological, chemical and physical processes are interacting in ecosystem in improving water quality?

Is it possible to organize a multitude of factors and processes of water self-purification into a few groups (categories, blocks)?

Is the self-purification potential of an aquatic ecosystem a certain constant or a labile parameter?

Is the mechanism of water self-purification vulnerable to external impact on the aquatic ecosystem, e.g. to the impact of chemical pollution with synthetic chemicals?

Answer was given in the papers

–see online: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60659939/:

**

Ostroumov S.A. Polyfunctional role of  biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and concluding remarks. -Hydrobiologia, 2002,469: 203-204.

DOI 10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1;Full text free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/52627327/; http://scipeople.com/uploads/materials/4389/;

**

S.A.Ostroumov. On the biotic self-purification of aquatic ecosystems: elements of the theory. -Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 396,2004, pp. 206 – 211. http://www.scribd.com/doc/48099028/ ;

and some other papers by the same authors cited in those articles.

The series of these papers contributed to a new conceptualization of multifunctional role of organisms, biological community and ecosystem in improving water quality.

**

key words:

ecotoxicology, environmental, chemistry, water, sustainability; aquatic, ecosystems, freshwater, marine, resources, environmental safety, biodiversity, protection, conservation, services, hydrosphere, pollution, control, prevention, habitats, decontamination, water quality, self-purification, pollutants, biological, processes, anthropogenic, effects,

**

Short and direct annotations on what are the key innovations and the key discoveries in the publications of this author, in various languages including Armenian, Chinese, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, Georgian, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Moldovan, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish, Ukrainian:

**

A note on the books by this author that are available in key world libraries in North America (libraries of the U.S.A., including Harvard University; Canada), Europe (national and university libraries of England, including Oxford, Cambridge; Germany; France; Switzerland; Netherlands; Sweden; Norway; Finland; Denmark; Belgium, Italy; Spain and other countries), Asia (Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore and other  countries), Australia, New Zealand, see: http://www.scribd.com/doc/77617474/;

**

Updated January 20, 2012.

Where to find this file on PC: D:\2011\Main.Discoveries\NewFormat, without table\ 1.Legendary.Discoveries.Innovative conceptualization of how ecosystems improve water quality.docx

 

CONTENT:

The questions on improving water quality that were answered in this series of publications

Innovation / Discovery, in short;

Why it is useful;

Who cited the papers presenting various aspects of this innovation          ;

Where this innovation / discovery was published;

Other examples of key discoveries in ecology, environmental sciences, biology;

Citation: Scientists of which countries cited those discoveries;

Scientists of which institutions cited those discoveries;

A list of who cited those discoveries;

Other evaluations of works of this author;

About the author of these publications;

Modernization of education ;

Addition

About this author, in Russian: http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

 

Interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

New scientific terminology. Exometabolism.

New scientific terminology. Exometabolism.

New scientific terminology. Exometabolism.

The new term was introduced in the book: Ostroumov, 2008.

 

В научную терминологию введен новый термин: «экзометаболизм». Термин введен в книге:

С.А.Остроумов. Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов. М. МАКС-Пресс. 2008. 200 с.

Предисловие члена-корр. РАН В.В. Малахова.

Библиогр. : с.155-191.

(Серия: Наука. Образование. Инновации. Выпуск 9).

ISBN 978-5-317-02625-7.

 

http://scipeople.com/publication/68016/.

См. подробнее на стр. 9 этой книги.

 

 

Дополнительно о некоторых других результатах научной работы в этой и смежных областях:

http://b23.ru/k3th;

http://www.scribd.com/doc/83168032;

in Russian: http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

key words: new, scientific, terminology, ecology, environmental science, biology, exometabolism, новая терминология, экзометаболизм, экология, биология

**ссылка на изображение – юмористический рис на тему «терминология»:

https://encrypted-tbn3.google.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQJOe7U9IT8mbahIj-JcLARcl9vXInxpBE7sNF-5vFkfnav-ihW

 

Addition

About this author, in Russian: http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

 

Interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

New scientific terminology. Integral metabolism.В научную терминологию введен новый термин: «интегральный метаболизм»

New scientific terminology. Integral metabolism.

Introduced in the book:  Ostroumov, 2008.

More info is given below:

В научную терминологию введен новый термин: «интегральный метаболизм». Термин введен в книге:

С.А.Остроумов. Гидробионты в самоочищении вод и биогенной миграции элементов. М. МАКС-Пресс. 2008. 200 с.

Предисловие члена-корр. РАН В.В. Малахова.

Библиогр. : с.155-191.

(Серия: Наука. Образование. Инновации. Выпуск 9).

ISBN 978-5-317-02625-7.

 

http://scipeople.com/publication/68016/.

См. подробнее на стр. 9 этой книги.

 

Дополнительно о некоторых других результатах научной работы в этой и смежных областях:

http://b23.ru/k3th;

http://www.scribd.com/doc/83168032;

in Russian: http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

 

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

key words: new, scientific, terminology, ecology, environmental science, biology, integral metabolism, новая терминология, интегральный метаболизм, экология, биология

New key to red tides and other environmental challenges:Inhibitory analysis: Discovery and innovation in environmental sciences and ecology

Inhibitory analysis in ecology.

This is about a discovery and innovation in environmental sciences and ecology, item 3 on the list of 18 (the list see here [3])

This new approach in ecology allows to see better the real role of organisms of a higher trophic level in regulation of the organisms of a lower trophic level.

The method that was applied was to inhibit the functional activity of the organisms of a higher trophic level and to observe the consequences: what happens with the organisms of a LOWER trophic level.

It was done by the inventor of this methodology in the laboratory experimental systems with bivalve mollusks that that a higher trophic level organisms as compared to phytoplankton algae. The algae are a lower trophic level organisms as compared to bivalve mollusks. The bivalves feed on algae.

In my experiments, I decreased trophic activity of bivalves using special chemical inhibitors. I used my previous discovery that some chemical – surfactants – can decrease filtering activity of bivalves (more about this discovery see:   http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/15/new-facts-on-hazardous-biological-and-toxic-effects-of-surfactants-and-detergents-paradigm-shifted/ ).

The result of this series of experiments was very clear: as a result of my inhibition of the organisms of the  higher trophic level (bivalves) I observed a very significant increase in abundance of the organisms of a lower trophic level (algae). The increase was – in some experiments – manifold.

 

What is the significance of this scientific result? It is really important as the abundance of phytoplankton algae is of great practical importance in such phenomena as eutrophication and algal blooms (also cyanobacterial blooms, red tides, brown tides, etc.). As a result, we got an instrument that helps us to evaluate and quantify the role of organisms of a higher trophic level (such as bivalve mollusks in water bodies and streams) to regulate and control the organisms of a lower trophic level (such as phytoplankton algae and cyanobacteria). Actually it is about how nature prevents us and itself from environmental disasters which happen when we damage those beneficial natural mechanisms of control. We know those disasters under the names of eutrophication and algal blooms.

 

The summary is given below.

A new approach was developed  to explore top-down control in ecosystems: eutrophication, algal bloom, water self-purification.

New facts were discovered by the author about the organisms which are filter-feeders (suspension-feeders), these facts led to developing the new methodology to quantify the natural control mechanisms described above.

This new approach gave methodology to  quantitatively estimate  the role of organisms in regulation via food web in ecosystem.  See more detail about this discovery on the site [1] and in the publication [2].

 

References:

1

http://www.scribd.com/doc/61179989/3-Legendary-discoveries-top-Down-Control-Inhibitory-analysis;

2 Key publication: http://www.moip.msu.ru/?p=154;

3  The list of 18 items on key discoveries and innovations:

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

 

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

 

Key words:

regulation, trophic level, food chain, eutrophication, algal blooms, cyanobacterial blooms, red tide, brown tide, filter-feeders, bivalves, water bodies, streams,

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

About the author:

http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology:

http://scipeople.com/group/380/topic/6102/;

www.scribd.com/doc/83168032/
INNOVATIONS, DISCOVERIES, in ecology, environmental sciences, biology
18 Items, in English;
List of Sites in Other Languages;
List of One-line Titles: Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology
**Part 1. SITES with comments IN SOME WORLD LANGUAGES:
In English:

In Chinese (simp.): http://www.scribd.com/doc/82323589/ In Chinese (trad.): http://www.scribd.com/doc/82374003/In French: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82323068/In-French In Indonesian: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82369704/In-Indonesian;In Italian: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82370780/; In Japanese: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82404969/In-Japanese; In Malay:http://www.scribd.com/doc/82409403/In-Malay; In Portuguese: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82463074/ In Spanish: http://www.scribd.com/doc/82469956/In-Spanish;.
Part 2. THE LIST OF THE DISCOVERIES, INNOVATIONS, FORMULATED IN ONE-LINE SENTENCES:
1. Innovative conceptualization: how ecosystems improve water quality.

2. Fundamentally new facts: hazardous biological and toxic effects of detergents.

3. Inhibitory analysis: A new method to explore top-down control in ecosystems.

4. A contribution to solution: the problem of criteria for environmental hazards.

5. A new contribution to solution: the problem of eutrophication.

6. New measurements: a quantitative estimate: the role of pellets of mollusks.

7. New facts, discovery: pollutants inhibit: fluxes (flows, transfers) of chemical elements.

8. Biomachinery. A new fundamental concept. New scientific term. Authored by Dr. S.A. O.

9. Modernized Terminology. A new improved definition. What is ‘ecosystem’?

10. New key facts. Scientific basis of technology. New phytotechnology: water treatment.

11. A new step. How to solve the problem. Stability of the biosphere.

12. A new component of the mechanism of regulation. Self-organization in the biosphere.

13. New serious hazards: low-level (sublethal) chemical pollution.

14. A new environmental hazard of pollution: damage to links between parts of ecosystems.

15. A new mechanism. How living organisms change the environment.

16. New fundamental concepts, terminology. Two-level synergism: man-made effects;

17. A new anthropogenic factor: initiation, stimulation of algal blooms.

18. New short list. The most urgent topics: environmental research in 21st
century

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

 

Key words:

regulation, trophic level, food chain, eutrophication, algal blooms, cyanobacterial blooms, red tide, brown tide, filter-feeders, bivalves, water bodies, streams,

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

About the author:

http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

Seafood: New threat to aquaculture of marine mussels … and cultural heritage of Europe

  New threat to aquaculture of marine mussels
This is about the bivalve mollusk, blue mussel Mytilus edulis.

Background

Marine mussels are a source of delicious and healthy food. Marine mussels are a staple of many seafood dishes in various cuisines including Spanish, French, Italian, Dutch, Portuguese, Belgian, and others …
They are cultivated as aquaculture.

The pictures of these mollusks, with the Latin name Mytilus edulis, are given below.
 
   
  

 

The life cycle of marine mussels is presented here:

 

The geographical range of this species is on the map:

 

Discovery, scientific innovation.

New research discovered a new threat to marine mussels. It was found [2-7] that the mussels decreased their water filtration rate under the effect of some synthetic chemicals that pollute seawater. The name of these organic chemicals is surfactants (surface active substances, surface active agents). The surfactants are the key foam-forming component of detergents and shampoos.

Additional scientific information.

More about the effects of surfactants see in the blogs [1], and in the scientific papers [2 – 7 ].
This post is the forth one, to continue the series of posts on environmental and ecological issues [1-3].

Mussels and cultural heritage: poetry

Marine mussels  were mentioned in the song – the song that tells the fictional tale of a beautiful fishmonger :

In Dublin’s fair city,
Where the girls are so pretty,
I first set my eyes on sweet Molly Malone,
As she wheeled her wheel-barrow,
Through streets broad and narrow,
Crying, “Cockles and mussels, alive, alive,
[“Molly Malone” (also known as “Cockles and Mussels” or “In Dublin’s Fair City“),
a popular song, set in Dublin, Ireland,
which has become the unofficial anthem of Dublin City]

 

A legend grew up that there was a lady Molly, who lived in the 17th century.

In some books, she  is  represented as a hawker by day and part-time prostitute by night [8].

In 1988 the Dublin Millennium Commission endorsed claims concerning a Molly Malone who died on 13 June 1699, and proclaimed 13 June to be “Molly Malone day”  [8].

The Molly Malone statue:

The Molly Malone statue in Grafton Street (Dublin) was unveiled by Lord Mayor of Dublin, Alderman Ben Briscoe during the 1988 Dublin Millennium celebrations, declaring 13 June as Molly Malone Day.

This poem and song became really important.

Therefore, conservation and survival of this species of bivalve mollusks is important from various perspectives: not only for reasons of food but also for reasons of cultural heritage.

References (marine mussels Mytilus edulis were studied):
[1]

http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/15/will-wars-of-future-be-related-to-modern-science-and-theories-of-ecology-key-issues-water-quality-scientific-fundamentals-achievements-discoveries-bibliography/;

http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/14/discovery-of-the-key-role-of-organisms-that-filter-water-and-make-it-clear/;

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

**
[2] Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia, Vol. 469, No. 1. , pp. 117-129, [Improving water quality, sustainability, environment safety] http://www.scribd.com/doc/52598579/;

**

[3] An Amphiphilic Substance Inhibits the Mollusk Capacity to Filter out Phytoplankton Cells from Water. – Biology Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 1. , pp. 95-102, doi:10.1023/A:1026671024000

**

[4] Studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filter-feeding bivalves. – Hydrobiologia, Vol. 500, No. 1. , pp. 341-344, doi:10.1023/A:1024604904065;
**
[5] О биотическом самоочищении водных экосистем. Элементы теории. – Доклады Академии Наук (ДАН, Doklady Akademii Nauk). Vol.396. No. 1. p.136-141 : http://www.scribd.com/doc/83048698/, http://www.scribd.com/ar55/d/48099028, http://www.scribd.com/doc/57774996;
**
[6] Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders; In: Aquatic Biodiversity II, (edited by: H. Segers, K. Martens) Vol. 180, pp. 275-286, doi:10.1007/1-4020-4111-X_26;

**
[7] Also see: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59437439/;

[8] Siobhán Marie Kilfeather, Dublin: a cultural history, Oxford University Press US, 2005, p. 6.

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

On the author: http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

key words: New threat, aquaculture, marine mussels, blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, staple food, seafood, dishes, cuisines, pollution, detergents, surfactants, water quality, environmental toxicology, аквакультура, мидии, детергенты,

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants.

 

 

Background.

In the previous parts of this series of the material posted, it was explained why it is so important to analyze the issues of aquatic environment, water quality, and related issues of how chemicals interact with aquatic organisms (see Part 1, [1]). Also, it was shown that aquatic organisms contribute a lot to improving water quality, as exemplified by the organisms that are filter-feeders (Part 2, [2]).

Goal.
In this material (which is item 3 to continue the series of previous posts on Environment, Water and Ecology [1, 2]), the goal is to consider additional eye-opening information on chemical pollutants of water, especially on the chemicals that until recently were considered as relatively safe, namely, synthetic surfactants.

Location in industrial products.

These chemicals – surfactants – are components of many industrial products of broad use: laundry detergents, shampoo, liquid soap, dish washing liquid detergents, cosmetics, car cosmetics, pipe washing mixtures (including pipes of various use, e.g., pipes for milk and pipes for gasoline), liquids for fire extinguishers, and even pesticide mixtures of broad use in agriculture, horticulture, and in making lawns and playing grounds for golf to look nice.

Variety of names.

These chemicals are known under various names: surfactants, detergents, tensides, surface-active substances, surface active agents.

Quantity. Discharge that pollutes the environment.

The daily discharge of surfactants to waste waters is more than 10 g per an average inhabitant of urbanized areas, which means a discharge of 10 thousand kilogram in a city of 1 million people, which is equal to 22 thousand pound every day or more than 6 million pound annually!

Safe or not?

Until recently the synthetic surfactants were considered as relatively safe chemicals. Their level of environmental hazard was considered far lower than the environmental hazards from the champions of pollution, the notorious ecotoxicants: heavy metals, chlororganic products, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), insecticides, herbicides, just to list a few …

Innovation and eye-opening discovery.

The point is that recent research [3 – 5] demonstrated that it was a wrong opinion. A key issue is the issue of criteria to use for assessment of  the environmental hazards of chemicals. Recently, a development of new criteria was made [3].
These criteria gave attention not only to easily visible lethal effects of chemicals (increase in mortality of the organisms tested in the experiments) but also to less noticeable sublethal effects (which decrease functional performance of the organisms and finally their health). Moreover, more attention was given to the ecosystem health.

New experiments showed a variety of negative effects of surfactants on bacteria and cyanobacteria, algae, higher plants and invertebrates, including mussels and oysters that are key organisms that are being grown in aquaculture [3-5].
The results on the new approach, and new experiments, were presented in a series of papers [4 ] and the book [5 ]. The results demonstrated that the synthetic surfactants pose a more serious hazard to environment, especially water environment [3 – 5], than it was previously thought.

This is the book [5], in which a large amount of innovative results of bioassay of synthetic surfactants and detergents is presented. As it was mentioned, the experiments discovered many negative effects of these chemicals on bacteria and cyanobacteria, algae, higher plants and aquatic invertebrates.

Bottom line.

As a matter of fact, the discovery is: a new hazard to environment, a new priority in preventing negative effects of chemical pollution, in prevention of deterioration of water quality.

Recognition: international scientific community.

The book mentioned and the related papers were cited by scientists of a number of countries as diverse as U.S.A., Germany, U.K., Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Austria, Spain, Turkey, China, Slovakia, and Argentina (in arbitrary order) [6].

Location of the laboratories.

This research was carried out at Moscow State University (Russia), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (U.K.), University of New York (U.S.A.), University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Institute of Biology of Southern Seas (Crimea, Ukraine). A concise summary was presented in [7].

Foam and surfactants: a contrasting variety of connotations, including Venus, or Aphrodite.

According to legends of the ancient Greek mythology, a foam produced by sea water was a place of birth of the goddess of love, Aphrodite (Venus in mythology of ancient Rome). Love (to Simonetta Vespucci, nicknamed la bella Simonetta) and the legend on Venus inspired a genius painter of Renaissance, Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (c. 1445 – 1510), to create one of the most charming images of the cultural heritage of mankind: The Birth of Venus (in Italian: Nascita di Venere; 1486). However, the research project and the book that summarized its results and was mentioned above added some less charming connotations to another type of foam, namely the foam produced by synthetic surfactants.

Location of this post in the series of posts.

This post is No.3 in the series on Environment, Water and Ecology. The previous posts were:

[1] Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography.

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography


[2] on the discovery of the key role of organisms in making water clear http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/14/discovery-of-the-key-role-of-organisms-that-filter-water-and-make-it-clear/

**

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND KEY SITES:
[1] Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography.

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography


[2] on the discovery of the key role of organisms in making water clear http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/04/14/discovery-of-the-key-role-of-organisms-that-filter-water-and-make-it-clear/
[3] new criteria for environmental hazards: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60891549; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49088234; www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12852181; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52636721/
[4] series of papers on ecotoxicology of surfactants and detergents: http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065593; http://www.scribd.com/doc/59417067/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52634169/; http://www.springerlink.com/content/p7754h672w814m30/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45914806; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45958156/; scribd.com/doc/59544597/;
[5] on the book Biological Effects of Surfactants : http://www.scribd.com/doc/64066178/;
[6] on citation: www.scribd.com/doc/54504932
[7] summary: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60757545;

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

On the author: http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,

Key words:
Venus, Aphrodite, love, goddess, environment, detergents, surfactants, tensides, surface active substances, pollutants, ecotoxicology, environmental, chemistry, water, sustainability; aquatic, ecosystem services, marine, resources, environmental safety, protection, hydrosphere, pollution, control, prevention, decontamination, book, biotesting, bioassay, phytotest, phytotoxicity, ecology, improving, water quality, environmental sciences, purification, self-purification, ecosystem health, freshwater, streams, water bodies, pollution control, sublethal, hazard assessment, aquaculture,

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents, paradigm shifted on bioassay to assess environmental hazards of chemicals / pollutants /xenobiotics / waste waters: new conceptualization
[Series of posts on fundamental legendary discoveries in environmental sciences. Item 2];

See also: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60757545/ ;

THE QUESTIONS THAT WERE ANSWERED in the BOOK entitled ‘Biological Effects of Surfactants’:
1. Do detergents and synthetic surfactants pose any serious hazard to environment? the Answer given by the book: Yes, they do;
2. Do all types of detergents and washing mixtures pose that hazard – including, e.g. laundry detergents and shampoos? The Answer given by the book: Yes, they do;
3. How broad is the spectrum of negative biological effects produced by surfactants and detergents? The Answer given by the book: it is really broad and covers all the organisms that were used in author’s bioassays, without any exception: from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, from unicellular to multicellular organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals.
4. Do sublethal concentrations of surfactants and detergents pose a serious hazard to the biosphere? The Answer given by the book: Yes, they do. A good example is the author’s discovery of sublethal effects of surfactants on bivalve mollusks, which lead to a decrease in filtration rate, which in turn leads to a decrease in water self-purification, which pose a serious hazard of a decrease in water quality.
5. Is it possible to offer any new efficient methods or new modifications of the current methods for bioassay of chemicals? The Answer given by the book: Yes, it is not only possible but implemented. The book contains new methods/modifications of methods which increase the efficiency of bioassay with seedlings of plants and activity of filter-feeders (Chapter 2 in the book).
6. In which countries was the book cited and proved to be useful? Answer: Belgium, Denmark, Austria, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, Argentina, Saudi Arabia, Peru, Slovakia, and others. See the text below.
7. In which countries did some libraries acquire this book? Answer: USA (Harvard University, MIT, Library of Congress, and others), Canada, UK (Oxford, Cambridge University, and others.), Netherlands, France, Germany, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and others: http://www.scribd.com/doc/77617474

** the sections of the material that follow:
Innovation / Discovery
Why it is useful
Who cited papers presenting various aspects of this innovation
Where this innovation / discovery was published

**

Innovation / Discovery:
New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents;
A series of new methods and facts on bioassay of surfactants, detergents, pesticides, using plant seedlings, freshwater and marine bivalve mollusks, leeches, algae, bacteria; [= Серия новых методик и фактов о биологическом и токсичном действии детергентов и поверхностно-активных веществ]
WHY IT IS USEFUL:
Previously, the hazards from detergents and synthetic surfactants were underestimated.
The new facts open our eyes to better see the new hazards to the environment and water quality.

New insight into hazards from low, sublethal concentrations of pollutants and mild, non-lethal effects of those low concentrations on organisms;

New priorities in monitoring, and environmental protection;
To provide better environmental protection;
To ensure water sustainability
WHO CITED PAPERS PRESENTING VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THIS INNOVATION:
FAQ (Frequently asked questions) on the book:. Biological Effects of Surfactants: http://www.scribd.com/doc/52630072/FAQ-1-bookBiol-Effe-Surfactants;
Frequently asked questions, part 2. [About the book:. Biological Effects of Surfactant: http://www.scribd.com/doc/46270956;
http://www.scribd.com/doc/52630298/FAQ2-Book-Bioeff-Surf-Part-2-Eng; Mutagenesis, Volume22, Issue 6, p. 363-370.
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and dimethyldioctadecyl-ammonium bromide (DDAB), two common quaternary ammonium compounds, cause genotoxic effects in mammalian and plant cells at environmentally relevant concentrations.
F. Ferk, M. Mišík1, C. Hoelzl, M. Uhl2, M. Fuerhacker3, B. Grillitsch4, W. Parzefall, A. Nersesyan, K. Mičieta1, T. Grummt5, V. Ehrlich and S. Knasmüller*;
– Author Affiliations:
Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Austria;
1Department of Botany, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia;
2Federal Environment Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria;
3University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria;
4University of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Vienna, Austria;
5German Environmental Protection Agency, Bad Elster, Germany;
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +43 1 427765142;
**
M.B. Yagci, S. Bolca, J.P.A. Heuts, W. Ming, G. de With. Self-stratifying antimicrobial polyurethane coatings. – Progress in Organic Coatings. 2011. In press; doi:10.1016/j.porgcoat.2011.04.021.
M.B. Yagci a, S. Bolca b, J.P.A. Heuts c, W. Ming a, G. de With a,
a Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands;
b Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, B-9000, Ghent, Belgium;
c Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands;

**
J. Saudi Chem. Soc., Vol. 12, No. 4; pp. 489-514 (2008); SURFACTANTS PART 1: OVERVIEW ON THEIR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Hamad A. Al-Lohedan* and Fawzia F. Al-Blewi Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia;
**
Nanosized Photocatalysts in Environmental Remediation.
Jess P. Wilcoxon, Billie L. Abrams; Published Online: 15 JUL 2010;
DOI: 10.1002/9783527628155.nanotech012;
Copyright © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Wilcoxon, J. P. and Abrams, B. L. 2010. Nanosized Photocatalysts in Environmental Remediation. Nanotechnology. 51–124.
Author Information:
1 University of Birmingham, Nanophysics Research Laboratory, Birmingham, United Kingdom;
2 Danish Technical University, Department of Physics Nano DTU Center for Integrated Nanoparticle Functionality (CINF), Kongens Lyngby, Denmark;
**
The Biologist (Lima, Peru) 2010, 8:43-53. ISSN 1816-0719. EFECTO DE UN DETERGENTE BIODEGRADABLE EN AGUA EN LA REPRODUCCIÓN DE DAPHNIA MAGNA [=EFFECT OF A BIODEGRADABLE DETERGENT IN WATER ON DAPHNIA MAGNA REPRODUCTION] Castiglioni, M.1,2 & Collins, P.1,2; 1 Escuela Superior de Sanidad- FBCB- UNL. Cuidad Universitaria Pje El Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe , Argentina. 2 Instituto Nacional de Limnología- CONICET-UNL. Cuidad Universitaria Pje El Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina. Correo electrónico: marielacastiglioni@hotmail.com;
**
CITED OTHER RELEVANT PUBLICATIONS by the same author:
Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 27(2): 409-423. 2008;
doi: 10.1899/07-058.1;
http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1899/07-058.1;
Community and foodweb ecology of freshwater mussels;
Caryn C. Vaughn, S. Jerrine Nichols, Daniel E. Spooner.
And other publications;
WHERE THIS INNOVATION / DISCOVERY WAS PUBLISHED:

The book: S.A.Ostroumov. Biological Effects of Surfactants, Publisher: CRC Press, Taylor &Francis;
ISBN: 9780849325267; ISBN 10: 0849325269;
http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9780849325267

Which libraries and institutions worldwide have acquired this book?

Harvard, Oxford, Cambridge, MIT and other libraries worldwide which acquired the books by Dr. S. O.: Europe, North America, Asia, Australia, Africa: USA, Canada, France, Switzerland, Japan, China, Korea, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, United Kingdom, Finland, Poland, Serbia, Turkey, Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Singapore, South Africa: http://www.scribd.com/doc/77617474/;

On the book:
Understanding the role of aquatic biota in forming water quality, and the impact of pollution and chemical substances that enter aquatic ecosystems is crucial to the assessment, prevention, and remediation of damaged environments. The book “Biological Effects of Surfactants” SYNTHESIZES THE MOST IMPORTANT FINDINGS from hundreds of articles and the author’s current experiments. His articles were on the biological effects of synthetic surfactants and detergents on individual organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. This book offers a new perspective of the hazards of pollution.

The book DRAWS UPON NEW CONCEPTS IN AQUATIC ECOLOGY, hydrobiology, biogeochemical cycling, and the assimilative capacity of water. The analysis is made beyond the self-purification capabilities of bacteria and nutrient cycling. The book presents and examines a lot of new effects of anionic, non-ionic, and cationic surfactants as well as detergent mixtures on a wide range of organisms. The list of the organisms includes bacteria, cyanobacteria, flagellates, algae, higher plants, and invertebrates. The author is a distinguished member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. He establishes new quantitative characteristics of the effects and presents study results reflecting newly discovered phenomena. The author is proposing and substantiating new priorities and approaches for testing, assessing, and characterizing the biological activities and hazards of chemical substances. Moreover, he illustrates how the data obtained can be used to develop effective environmental remediation and protection measures to improve water quality.

The book ‘Biological Effects of Surfactants’ LAYS AN EXCELLENT FOUNDATION FOR SCIENTISTS TO EXPLORE HOW HAZARDOUS WASTES are absorbed in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The book determines what is required for remediation and restoring water quality in freshwater and marine water bodies and ecosystems. In addition, the book designs the best approach to counteract the toxic effects of manmade surfactants using biological methods, including phytoremediation (phytotechnology). The book is a useful contribution to water sustainability, to sustainable development.

In German, about the book: Biological Effects of Surfactants: http://www.scribd.com/doc/63191270/;

In French about the book : Ostroumov S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants; http://www.scribd.com/doc/63194509/;

In Japanese on the book ‘Biological Effects Of Surfactants’, – comments – aquatic ecology, limnology, bio oceanography, ecotoxicology: http://bit.ly/n1K4kF;

Addition:

interesting posts on innovations in environmental science:

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/normal-0-false-false-false-ru-x-none-x_03.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/environmental-science-key-bibliography.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/websites-on-scientific-activities-of.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/blog-post.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/discovery-of-inhibitory-analysis-in.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/04/well-cited-article-inhibitory-analysis.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/innovative-contribution-to-solution-to.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-scientific-terminology-integral.html;

http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/05/monetary-estimate-of-good-scientific.html;

A new way of mining gold from water? Environment, Nanomaterials, Water, Gold. Know-how using biological

Discovery of the key role of organisms that filter water and make it clear

Venus, or Aphrodite, goddess of love, Environment, Water and Ecology. Environmental role of synthetic surfactants

Will wars of future be related to modern science and theories of ecology? Key issues, water quality: scientific fundamentals, achievements, discoveries, bibliography

Discoveries, innovations in environmental sciences, ecology

New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: paradigm shifted

On the author: http://famous-scientists.ru/3732/

ecological, discoveries, 2012, science, terminological,